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INGMAR BERGMAN four screenplays (1960)


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Godina izdanja: Ostalo
ISBN: Ostalo
Jezik: Engleski
Oblast: Film
Autor: Strani

Unutra dobro očuvano
Korice kao naslici
Ilustrovano fotografijamaiz filmova

4 scenarija

1960


Ernst Ingmar Bergman (šved. Ernst Ingmar Bergman; Upsala, 14. jul 1918 — Faro, 30. jul 2007) bio je švedski filmski, pozorišni i televizijski režiser, scenarista i producent. Priznat je kao jedan od najveštijih i najuticajnih filmskih režisera svih vremena.[1]

Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman Smultronstallet.jpg
Ingmar Bergman u toku produkcije Divljih jagoda
Puno ime
Ernst Ingmar Bergman
Datum rođenja
14. jul 1918.
Mesto rođenja
Upsala
 Švedska
Datum smrti
30. jul 2007. (89 god.)
Mesto smrti
Faro
 Švedska
Supružnik
Else Fišer (1943–45)
Elen Lundstrem (1945–50)
Gun Grut (1951–59)
Kabi Laretei (1959–69)
Ingrid fon Rosen (1971–95)
Aktivni period
1944–2005
Zanimanje
Filmski režiser, scenarista i producent
Potpis
Ingmar Bergman Signature.png
Veza do IMDb-a
Nagrade
Ostale nagrade Nagrada Gete
Praemium Imperiale
Režirao je preko 60 filmova i dokumentarnih filmova za bioskopska izdanja i televiziju, za koju je većinu napisao scenario. Takođe je režirao preko 1070 pozorišnih predstava. Glumci koji su glumili u njegovim filmovima su: Harijet Anderson, Liv Ulman, Gunar Bjernstrand, Bibi Anderson, Erland Josefson, Ingrid Tulin i Maks fon Sidou. Njegovi filmovi se obično bave smrću, bolešću, verom, izdajom, sumornošću i ludilom.

Mladost Uredi


Mladi Bergman.
Ingmar Bergman je rođen u Upsali u Švedskoj kao sin Erika Bergmana, luteranskog sveštenika, a kasnije kapelana kralja Švedske i Karin, medicinske sestre koja je, takođe, imala valonske[2] korene. Odrastao je sa svojim starijim bratom Dagom i sestrom Margaritom okružen verskom slikom i diskusijom. Njegov otac je bio konzervativan parohijski sveštenik sa strogim roditeljskim vaspitavanjem. Ingmar je zatvaran u mračnim ormanima za “prekršaje”, kao što je enureza. „Dok je otac propovedao, molio, pevao ili slušao“, Ingmar je napisao u svojoj autobiografskoj knjizi Čarobna lampa:

Posvetio sam interes misteriji crkvenog sveta malih lukova, debelih zidova, mirisu večnosti, obojenih sunčevih svetlosti iznad najčudnijih vegetacija srednjovekovnih slika i urezanih figura na plafonima i zidovima. Bilo je svega što jedna mašta može da poželi — anđeli, sveci, zmajevi, proroci, đavoli, ljudi.
Iako je odrastao u pobožnom luteranskom domaćinstvu, Bergman je kasnije izjavio da je veru izgubio u osmoj godini života i da se samo nagodio sa ovom činjenicom dok je režirao film Zimsko svetlo.[3] Bergmanovo interesovanje za pozorište i film počelo je rano: „U devetoj godini, menjao je olovne vojnike za čarobnu lampu, koja je promenila tok njegovog života. U toku godine, on je stvorio, igrajući se sa svojim igračkama, privatni svet u kojem se osećao potpuno kao kod kuće. Pravio je sopstvene dekoracije, marionete i svetlosne efekte dajući marionetama uloge u Strindbergovim pozorišnim komadima u kojima je on govorio u svim delovima.”

Godine 1936., u svojoj 18. godini, poslat je u Nemačku na letnji raspust sa porodičnim prijateljima. Prisustvovao je mitingu nacista u Vajmaru na kojem je video Adolfa Hitlera.[4] Kasnije je napisao u Čarobnoj lampi o poseti Nemačkoj, opisujući kako je nemačka porodica stavila portret Adolfa Hitlera na zid iznad njegovog krevata i da je „mnogo godina bio na strani Hitlera, oduševljen njegovim uspehom i tužan zbog njegovih poraza.“ Bergman je prokomentarisao da je „Hitler bio neverovatno harizmatičan. Elektrifikovao je publiku... Nacizam koji sam video izgledao je zabavno i mladalački“.[5] Bergman je služio dva od pet meseci obaveznog vojnog roka.[6]

Godine 1937. upisao je umetnost i književnost na Stokholskom univerzitetu. Većinu vremena proveo je u studentskom pozorištu i postao je “pravi filmski zavisnik”.[7] Iako nije diplomirao, napisao je brojne pozorišne predstave, kao i opere, i postao asistent režisera u pozorištu. 1942. godine ponuđeno mu je da režira jednu od svojih predstava, Kasparova smrt. Predstavu su videli članovi Svensk Filmindustri produkcijske kuće, koji su zatim Bergmanu ponudili mesto scenariste. 1943. godine oženio je Elsu Fišer.

Karijera Uredi

Filmski rad Uredi
Bergmanova filmska karijera počela je 1941. sa njegovim preuređenim scenarijima, ali njegov prvi uspeh bio je 1944. kada je napisao scenario za Mučenje, fulm u režiji Alfa Šeberga. Uporedo sa pisanjem scenarija, takođe je dobio mesto asistenta režisera za film. U svojoj drugoj autobiografskoj knjizi, Slike: Moj život u filmu, Bergman opisuje snimanje spoljašnosti kao njegov stvarni filmski rediteljski debi.[8] Međunarodni uspeh ovog filma daje Bergmanu prvu priliku da režira godinu dana kasnije. Tokom narednih deset godina, režirao je i napisao više od deset filmova uključujući Zatvor iz 1949, Strugotine i šljokice i Leto sa Monikom oba filma iz 1953. godine.


Ingmar Bergman i Viktor Šestrem na snimanju Divljih jagoda 1957. godine.
Bergmanov prvi ostvareni svetski uspeh je film Osmesi letnje noći iz 1955, koji je dobio nagradu Najbolji poetski humor i bio nominovan za Zlatnu palmu naredne godine. Uspeh je praćen filmovima Sedmi pečat i Divlje jagode, prikazani u Švedskoj 1957. godine. Sedmi pečat je dobio specijalnu nagradu žirija i bio nominovan za Zlatnu palmu u Kanu, a Divlje jagode brojne nagrade za Bergmana i Viktora Šestrema. Odd početka 1960-ih, većinu svog života proveo je na švedskom ostrvu Faro, gde je snimio nekoliko filmova.

U ranim 1960-im režirao je tri filma koji istražuju temu vere i sumnje u Boga Kroz mračno staklo iz 1961, Zimsko svetlo iz 1962. i Tišina iz 1963. godine. Kritičari su stvorili utisak da je zajednička tema u ova tri filma napravila od njih trilogiju ili sinematski triptih. Bergman je u početku odgovorio da nije imao nameru da od ova tri filma napravi triologiju i da nije mogao da vidi bilo kakve zajedničke motive u njima, ali je kasnije izgledalo da je usvojen utisak, sa nekim dvosmislenostima.[9] 1964. godine snimio je Sve te žene, parodiju filma Osam i po.[10]

Godine 1966. režirao je Personu, film za koji on smatra da je jedno od njegovih najznačajnijih dela. Dok je šokantno eksperimentalni film dobio nekoliko nagrada, mnogi smatraju film njegovim remek-delom. Ostali značajni filmovi iz perioda uključuju Devičanski izvor iz 1960, Vučje vreme, Sram oba filma iz 1968. i Strast iz 1969. godine. Filmove koje je snimao za švedsku televiziju su Prizori iz bračnog života iz 1973. i Čarobna frula iz 1975. godine.

Nakon njegovog hapšenja 1976. zbog utaje poreza, Bergman je izjavio da više neće snimati filmove u Švedskoj. Zatvorio je filmski studio na ostrvu Faro i otišao je u izgnanstvo. Ukratko je razmotrio mogućnost da radi u Americi i njegov sledeći film, Zmijsko jaje iz 1977. godine je bio u nemačko-američkoj produkciji i njegov drugi film na engleskom jeziku (prvi je bio Dodir iz 1971). Godinu dana kasnije snimio je film Jesenja sonata u glavnoj ulozi sa Ingrid Bergman. Drugi film koje je režirao je Iz života marioneta iz 1980. godine u britansko-nemačkoj produkciji.

Godine 1982. privremeno se vratio u domovinu da režira Fani i Aleksandar. Bergman je izjavio da će film biti njegov poslednji film, i da će se posle toga preokrenuto pozorišnoj režiji. Od tada, napisao je nekoliko filmskih scenarija i režirao brojne televizijske specijale. Kao i kod prethodnog rada za televiziju, neke od tih produkcija su kasnije izdate za pozorište. Poslednji takav rad bio je Sarabanda iz 2003. godine, nastavak serije Prizori iz bračnog života; imao je 84 godina kada je režirao film.


Ingmar Bergman i njegov dugogodišnji snimatelj Sven Nikvist tokom produkcije filma Kroz mračno staklo (1960).
Repertoarna družina Uredi

Veliki broj Bergmanovih scena snimljen je u Filmstaden studiju severno od Stokholma.
Bergman je okupio ličnu “repertoarnu družinu” švedskih glumaca koje je često angažovao u filmovima, uključujući Maksa fon Sidoua, Bibi Anderson, Harijet Anderson, Erlanda Josefsona, Ingrid Tulin, Gunel Lindblom, Bengta Ekerota, Endersa Eka i Gunara Bjernstranda, od kojih su svi glumili u bar pet Bergmanovih filmova. Norveška glumica Liv Ulman, koja se pojavila u devet Bergmanovih filmova i na jednom TV filmu (Sarabanda), bila je posljednja koja se pridružila družini (1966. u filmu Persona), a posle je postala najbliža Bergmanova saradnica, umetnički i lično. Zajedno su dobili ćerku, Lin Ulman (rođena 1966).

Bergman je 1953. godine započeo saradnju sa svojim snimateljem Svenom Nikvistom. Obojica su razvila i zadržala odličan radni odnos zbog čega Bergman nije morao brinuti oko kompozicije kadra sve do dana pre nego što se snimi. Na jutarnjem snimanju, kratko bi se obratio Nikvistu oko ugođaja i kompozicije kojima se nadao, te ostavio Nikvistu da radi bez ometanja ili komentara.

Finansiranje Uredi
Prema Bergmanovim rečima, nikada nije imao problema sa finansiranjem. Naveo je dva razloga: prvi, to što nije živio u SAD, koje je video kao opsednute zaradom; i drugo, to što su njegovi filmovi bili niskobudžetni. (Krici i šaputanja, na primer, su dovršeni sa oko 450.000 dolara, dok su Prizori iz bračnog života, šestodelni televizijski film, koštali samo 200.000 dolara.)[11]

Tehnika Uredi
Bergman je često sam pisao svoje scenarije, razmišljajući o njima mesecima ili godinama pre početka procesa pisanja, koji je smatrao dosadnim. Njegovi rani filmovi su pažljivo strukturirani, te su temeljeni na njegovim pozorišnim komadima ili scenarijima koje je napisao u saradnji sa drugim autorima. Bergman je izjavio da je u svojim kasnijim radovima dopuštao svojim glumcima da ostvare svoje vizije koje nisu bile u skladu sa njegovima, naglasivši da su rezultati često bili “katastrofalni” kad to ne bi učinio. Kako je njegova karijera napredovala, Bergman je sve više dopuštao glumcima da improviziraju u svojim dijalozima. U svojim posljednjim filmovima je napisao samo ideje informisajući o sceni i dopuštao glumcima da odluče o konačnim dijalozima. Nakon što bi pregledao grube snimke, Bergman je naglašavao važnost da se bude kritičan, ali neemotivan, tvrdeći da se pitao ne da li je njegov rad sjajan ili užasan, nego da li je dovoljan ili bi trebalo da bude ponovo snimljen.[11]


Bergman i glumica Ingrid Tulin tokom produkcije filma Tišina 1963. godine.
Teme Uredi
Bergmanovi filmovi često govore o egzistencijalnim pitanjima smrtnosti, usamljenosti i veri. Iako su njegove teme misaone, seksualna želja se često nalazila na istaknutom mestu, bilo da je okruženje bilo srednjovjekovna kuga (Sedmi pečat), život imućne porodice početkom 20. veka (Fani i Alexandar) ili savremeno otuđenje (Tišina). Njegovi ženski likovi obično su svesniji svoje seksualnosti nego muški, te je se ne boje izraziti. U intervjuu za Plejboj 1964. godine Bergman je rekao: „Manifestacija seksualnosti je jako važna, te posebno meni, iznad svega, ne želim snimati tek intelektualne filmove. Želim da publika oseti moje filmove. To je za mene mnogo važnije nego da ih razumije.“ Film, kaže Bergman, je bila njegova zahtevna ljubavnica.

Bergmanovi pogledi na svoju karijeru Uredi
Kad su ga pitali o njegovim filmovima, Bergman je rekao da Zimsko svetlo[12], Persona i Krici i šaputanja drži svojim najboljim filmovima, iako je u intervjuu 2004. rekao kako je bio “deprimiran” svojim filmovima te da ih više nije mogao gledati.[13] U ovim filmovima, rekao je, uspeo je dovesti medijum do njegovih granica. Bergman je u više prilika izjavio (na primer u knjizi intervjua Bergman na Bergmanu) da je Tišina označila kraj ere kad su religijska pitanja zauzimala istaknuto mesto u njegovim filmovima.

Pozorišni rad Uredi
Iako je Bergman poznat po svom doprinosu u filmu, celi svoj život bio je aktivan i plodan kao pozorišni redatelj. Tokom studija na univerzitetu u Stokholmu, postao je aktivan u svom studentskom pozorištu, gde je ubrzo stekao ime. Nakon diplome prvo je radio kao redatelj-pripravnik u Stokholmskom pozorištu. Sa 26 godina postao je najmlađi rukovodilac pozorišta u Evropi u pozorištu u Helsingborgu. U Helsingborgu je ostao 3 godine, a nakon toga postao je redatelj u pozorištu u Geteborgu od 1946. do 1949. godine.

Godine 1953, postao je redatelj gradskog pozorišta u Malmeu i tamo ostao sledećih sedam godina. Mnogi od njegovih slavnih glumaca bili su ljudi sa kojima je počeo da radi u pozorištu, a deo ljudi iz “Bergmanove trupe” iz filmova iz šezdesetih došlo je iz gradskog pozorišta u Malmeu (Maks fon Sidou, na primer). Od 1960. do 1966. radio je kao redatelj Kraljevskog dramskog pozorišta u Stokholmu, gde je započeo dugogodišnju saradnju sa koreografom Donijom Fjuer.

Nakon što je napustio Švedsku zbog incidenta sa utajom poreza, bio je redatelj Minhenskog Residenz pozorišta (1977—1984). Ostao je aktivan u pozorištu tokom celih devedesetih, a poslednja produkcija bila je Ibzenova Divlja patka u Kraljevskom dramskom pozorištu 2002. godine.

Optužbe za utaju poreza Uredi
Dana 30. januara 1976. gidine, dok je održavao probu Ples smrti Augusta Strindberga u Kraljevskom dramskom pozorištu, uhapšen je i optužen za utaju poreza. Događaj se kobno odrazio na Bergmana. Zbog poniženja je doživio živčani slom te je hospitaliziran u stanju teške depresije.

Istraga se fokusirala na navodnu transakciju od 500.000 švedskih kruna 1970. između Bergmanove švedske kompanije Cinematograf i njene švajcarske podružnice Persona, koja je uglavnom služila za isplatu honorara stranim glumcima. Bergman je 1974. likvidirao kompaniju u Švajcarskoj nakon upozorenja Švajcarske centralne banke i naknadno prijavio porez. 23. marta 1976. specijalni tužilac Anders Nordenadler je odbacio optužbe protiv Bergmana, rekavši da navodni “kriminal” nema zakonske osnove, te ga uporedio sa slučajem “podizanja optužnice protiv osobe koja krade vlastiti auto”.[14] Generalni direktor Švedske porezne uprave, Gesta Ekman, branio je propalu istragu, govoreći da se istraga bavila ozbiljnim zakonskim materijalom te da se prema Bergmanu odnosilo kao prema svakom drugom osumnjičenom. Izrazio je žaljenje nakon što je saznao da je redatelj napustio zemlju, nadajući se da je Bergman “snažnija” osoba sada kad je istraga pokazala da nije učinio ništa pogrešno.[15]

Iako su optužbe odbačene, Bergman je i dalje bio neutešan, bojeći se da se nikad više neće vratiti režiranju. Na kraju se oporavio od šoka, ali uprkos molbama švedskog premijera Ulofa Palmea, visokih javnih figura, i vođa filmske industrije, zakleo se da se nikad više neće vratiti u Švedsku. Zatvorio je svoj studio na ostrvu Faro, otkazao dva najavljena filma i otišao u samovoljni egzil u Minhen u Njemačkoj. Hari Šein, direktor Švedskog filmskog instituta, procenio je trenutnu štetu prouzorkovanu Bergmanovim egzilom na deset miliona švedskih kruna i stotine izgubljenih poslova.[16]

Povratak Uredi
Iako je nastavio da deluje iz Minhena, sredinom 1978. Bergman je nadvladao svoju ogorčenost prema Švedskoj vladi. U julu te godine se vratio u Švedsku, proslavivši 60. rođendan na Farou i delomično nastavio da radi kao redatelj u Kraljevskom dramskom pozorištu. Kako bi odao počast njegovom povratku, Švedski filmski institut je uveo Nagradu Ingmar Bergman za životna dostignuća na području filma.[17] Ipak, ostao je u Minhenu do 1984. U jednom od posljednjih intervjua sa Bergmanom, vođenom 2005. na ostrvu Faro, Bergman je rekao da je uprkos aktivnosti u egzilu, izgubio osam godina svog profesionalnog života.[18]

Od režiranja se povukao krajem 2003. U oktobru 2006. teško se oporavljao od operacije kuka. Umro je mirno u snu,[19] u svom domu na Farou, 30. jula 2007, u 89 godini života,[20] isti dan kad je umro još jedan slavni redatelj, Mikelanđelo Antonioni. Sahranjen je na ostrvu 18. avgusta 2007. na privatnoj ceremoniji. Mesto na goblju na ostrvu Faro pripremljeno je za njega pod strogom tajnom. Iako je sahranjen na ostrvu Faro, njegovo ime i datum rođenja upisan je pod imenom njegove supruge na grublju u Roslagsbrou, nekoliko godine pre njegove smrti.

Švedska banka je 6. aprila 2011. najavila da će se Bergmanov lik pojaviti na novčanici od 200 kruna i da će biti izdata 2014. ili 2015. godine.[21]

Neobjavljeni projekti Uredi
Kada je Bergman umro, velika arhiva projekata donirana je Švedskom filmskom institutu. Među projektima su nekoliko neobjavljenih i nedovršenih scenarija za pozorište i film. Predstava pod nazivom Ljubav bez ljubavnika i sa napomenom potpuna katastrofa! na koverti, nikada nije izvedena; radnja predstave je o režiseru koji nestaje i uredniku koji pokušava da završi posao koji je on ostavi nedovršen. Ostali otkazani projekti uključuju scenario za pornografski film koji je Bergman napustio misleći da neće još dugo da živi, predstava o kanibalu, film o Isusu, film o Veseloj udovici i predstava pod nazivom Od sperme do aveta.[22]

Porodica Uredi


Grob Ingmara Bergmana i njegove žene, Ingrid fon Rosen.
Bergman se ženio pet puta:

25. marta 1943 — 1945, sa Elsom Fišer, koreografkinjom i plesačicom (razvod). Deca:
Lena Bergman, glumica, rođena 1943.
22. jul 1945 — 1950, sa Elenom Lundstrem, koreografkinjom i filmskim režiserom (razvod). Deca:
Eva Bergman, filmski režiser, rođena 1950,
Jan Bergman, filmski režiser (1945—2000), i
blizanci Mats i Ana Bergman, oboje glumci i filmski režiseri, rođeni 1948.
1951 — 1959, sa Gunom Grut, novinarkom (razvod). Deca:
Ingmar Bergman mlađi, avio kapetan, rođen 1951.
1959 — 1969, sa Kabi Laretei, pijanistkinjom (razvod). Deca:
Danijel Bergman, filmski režiser, rođen 1962.
11. novembar 1971 — 20. maj 1995, sa Ingrid fon Rosen. Deca:
Marija fon Rosen, pisac, rođena 1959.
Prva četiri braka okončana su razvodom, dok je poslednji okončan smrću njegove žene od raka želuca 1995. godine. Pored njegovih brakova, Bergman je imao ljubavne veze sa glumicama Hariet Anderson (1952—1955), Bibi Anderson (1955—1959), i Liv Ulman (1965—1970) sa kojom ima ćerku Lin Ulman. Ukupno, Bergman ima devetoro dece, od koje je jedno umrlo pre njega. Bergman je bio oženjen sa svim majkama svoje dece osim sa Liv Ulman. Njegova ćerka sa njegovom poslednjom suprugom, Ingrid fon Rosen, je rođena dvanaest godina pre njihovog braka.

Kolegijalna kritika i uticaj Uredi


Bista Ingmara Bergmana u aleji velikana u Kjelcu, Poljska.
Mnogi režiseri su pohvalili Bergmana, a neki su naveli njegov rad kao uticaj na svoje radove:

Andrej Tarkovski navodi Bergmana i Roberta Bresona kao svoja dva omiljena režisera: „Ja sam samo zainteresivan za stavove dve osobe: jedna osoba je Breson, a druga Bergman.” Bergmanov uticaj je bio takav da je Tarkovskijev poslednji film snimljen u Švedskoj u saradnji sa Svenom Nikvistom, Bergmanovim dugogodišnjim snimateljem i Erlandom Josefsonom, Bergmanovim omiljenim glumcem. Bergman je isto tako imao veliko poštovanje prema Tarkovskom, navodeći: ”Tarkovski je za mene najbolji režiser.”[23]
Pedro Almodovar[24]
Žan-Lik Godar[25]
Robert Altman[26]
Olivije Asajas[27]
Fransis Ford Kopola[28] je izjavio: „Moj omiljeni režiser svih vremena jer je on oličenje strasti, emocija i ima toplinu.”
Giljermo del Toro je rekao: „Bergman kao basnopisac — moj omiljen — je apsolutno očaravajuć.”[29]
Asgar Farhadi[traži se izvor]
Tod Fild[30] je izjavio: „Bio je čovek koji gradi akvadukt naše kinematografije.”
Vudi Alen[31] navodi Bergmana kao „verovatno najboljeg filmskog umetnika od pronalaska filmske kamere.”[32]
Kšištof Kišlovski[33] je izjavio: „Ovaj čovek je jedan od nekoliko filmskih režisera — verovatno jedini na svetu — koji je rekao toliko o ljudskoj prirodi kao Dostojevski i Kami.”
Stenli Kjubrik[34] je izjavio: „Verujem da su Ingmar Bergman, Vitorio De Sika i Federiko Felini jedina tri režisera u svetu koja nisu samo umetnički oportunisti. Pod ovim mislim da oni ne sede i ne čekaju dobru priču da naprave film. Oni imaju tačku gledišta koja je izražena iznova i iznova u njihovim filmovima, i oni sami pišu ili imaju napisane materijale za njih.”
Ang Li je izjavio: „Za mene je Bergman najbolji režiser od svih.”[35]
Fransua Ozon[27]
Pak Čan Uk[27]
Erik Romer je izjavio: „Sedmi pečat je najlepši film svih vremena.”[27]
Maržan Satrapi[27]
Mamoru Oši[36]
Pol Šreder je izjavio: „Ne bih napravio neki od mojih filmova ili napisao scenario kao što je Taksista da nije bilo za Ingmara Bergmana. Ono što je on ostavio je nasleđe veće nego od bilo kog režisera. Izvanredna stvar koja će ostati upamćena po Bergmanu je da je on učinio više nego bilo ko drugi da bioskop postane lični medijum i introspektivna vrednost.”[37]
Martin Skorseze je rekao: ”Ako ste bili živi pedesetih i šezdesetih godina i želeli da napravite film, ne vidim kako ne možete biti po uticajem Bergmana.”[38]
Stiven Spilberg je izjavio: „Njegova ljubav prema filmu skoro mi daje grižu savest.”[39]
Satjađit Raj[40] je izjavio: „Bergman je taj kojim sam i dalje opčinjen. Mislim da je izvanredan.”
Andre Tešine[27]
Liv Ulman[41]
Nagrade Uredi

Oskar Uredi
Bergman je 1971. godine dobio memorijalnu nagradu “Irving Talberg” za životno delo na dodeli Oskara. Tri njegova filmova osvojila su “Oskara” za najbolji strani film. Lista njegovih nominacija i nagrada je sledeća:

Nagrađen: najbolji strani film, Devičanski izvor, 1960
Nagrađen: najbolji strani film, Kroz tamno ogledalo, 1961
Nagrađen: najbolji strani film, Fani i Aleksandar, 1983
Nominovan: Najbolji originalni scenario, Divlje jagode, 1957
Nominovan: Najbolji originalni scenario, Kroz tamno ogledalo, 1961
Nominovan: Najbolji originalni scenario, Krici i šaputanja, 1974
Nominovan: Najbolji film, Krici i šaputanja, 1974
Nominovan: Najbolji režiser, Krici i šaputanja, 1974
Nominovan: Najbolji režiser, Licem u lice, 1974
Nominovan: Najbolji originalni scenario, Jesenja sonata, 1979
Nominovan: Najbolji originalni scenario, Fani i Aleksandar, 1983
Nominovan: Najbolji režiser, Fani i Aleksandar, 1983
BAFTA nagrade Uredi
Nominovan: Najbolji film iz bilo kog izvora, Mađioničar
Nominovan: Najbolji strani film, Fani i Aleksandar, 1983
Berlinksi filmski festival Uredi
Nagrađen: Zlatni medved za najbolji film, Divlje jagode, 1957
Nominovan: Zlatni medved za najbolji film, Kroz tamno ogledalo, 1961
Nagrađen: MKOBA nagrada, Kroz tamno ogledalo, 1961
Nagrada Cezar Uredi
Nominovan: Najbolji strani film, Čarobna frula, 1976
Nominovan: Najbolji strani film, Jesenja sonata, 1979
Nagrađen: Najbolji strani film, Fani i Aleksandar, 1984
Nominovan: Najbolji Evropski film, Sarabanda, 2005
Kanski filmski festival Uredi
Nagrađen: Najbolji poetski humor, Osmesi letnje noći, 1955
Nominovan: Zlatna palma, Osmesi letnje noći, 1955
Nagrađen: Specijalna nagrada žirija, Sedmi pečat, 1957
Nominovan: Zlatna palma, , Sedmi pečat, 1957
Nagrađen: Najbolji režiser, Ivica života, 1958
Nominovan: Zlatna palma, Ivica života, 1958
Nagrađen: Specijalno priznanje, Devičanski izvor, 1960
Nominovan: Zlatna palma, Devičanski izvor, 1960
Nagrađen: Tehnička nagrada žirija, Krici i šaputanja, 1972
Nagrađen: Nagrada za životno delo, 1998
Nagrada Zlatni globus Uredi
Nagrađen: Najbolji strani film, Divlje jagode, 1960
Nagrađen: Najbolji strani film, Devičanski izvor, 1960
Nagrađen: Najbolji strani film, Prizori iz bračnog života, 1975
Nagrađen: Najbolji strani film, Licem u lice, 1976
Nagrađen: Najbolji strani film, Jesenja sonata, 1978
Nagrađen: Najbolji strani film, Fani i Aleksandar, 1984
Nominovan: Najbolji strani film, Sram, 1968
Nominovan: Najbolji strani film, Krici i šaputanja, 1973
Nagrada Zlatna buba Uredi
Nagrađen: Najbolji film, Tišina, 1963
Nagrađen: Najbolji režiser, Tišina, 1963
Nagrađen: Najbolji film, Persona, 1966
Nagrađen: Najbolji film, Krici i šaputanja, 1972
Nagrađen: Najbolji film, Fani i Aleksandar, 1982
Nagrađen: Najbolji režiser, Fani i Aleksandar, 1982
Nagrađen: Najbolji scenario, Najbolje namere, 1992
Ostale nagrade i priznanja Uredi
Strani počasni član Američke akademija umetnosti i nauke, 1961
Nagrada Doroti i Lilijan Giš, 1995
Komandir legije časti, 1985
Izložbe Uredi

Ingmar Bergman: Stvaralac slike,[42] Moskovska kuća fotografije
Ingmar Bergman: Čovek koji je postavljao teška pitanja,[43] Moskovska kuća fotografije
Filmografija Uredi

Saznajte više
Ovaj članak nije preveden na srpski jezik.
Reditelj Uredi
1946 - Det regnar på vår kärlek (Man with an Umbrella)
1946 - Kris (Crisis)
1947 - Skepp till India land (A Ship Bound for India)
1948 - Hamnstad (Port of Call)
1948 - Musik i mörker (Music in Darkness)
1949 - Fängelse (The Devil`s Wanton)
1949 - Törst (Thirst)
1950 - Sånt händer inte här This Can`t Happen Here)
1950 - Till glädje (To Joy)
1951 - Sommarlek (Summer Interlude)
1952 - Kvinnors väntan (Secrets of Women)
1953 - Gycklarnas afton (The Naked Night)
1953 - Sommaren med Monika (Лето с Моником)
1954 - Lektion i kärlek, En (A Lesson in Love)
1955 - Kvinnodröm (Dreams)
1955 - Sommarnattens leende (Осмеси у летњој ноћи)
1957 - Bakomfilm smultronstället
1957 - Herr Sleeman kommer
1957 - Sjunde inseglet, Det (Седми печат)
1957 - Smultronstället (Дивље јагоде)
1958 - Ansiktet (The Magician)
1958 - Nära livet (Brink of Life)
1958 - Rabies
1958 - Venetianskan
1960 - Djävulens öga (The Devil`s Eye)
1960 - Jungfrukällan (The Virgin Spring)
1960 - Oväder
1961 - Såsom i en spegel (Through a Glass Darkly)
1963 - Drömspel, Ett
1963 - Nattvardsgästerna (Зимска светлост)
1963 - Tystnaden (Тишина)
1964 - För att inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor (Now About These Women)
1965 - Don Juan, (TV serija)
1966 - Persona
1967 - Stimulantia
1968 - Skammen (Shame)
1968 - Vargtimmen (Hour of the Wolf)
1969 - Fårödokument 1969
1969 - Passion, En (Страст)
1969 - Riten (The Ritual)
1971 - Beröringen (The Touch)
1972 - Viskningar och rop (Крици и шапутања)
1973 - Scener ur ett äktenskap (Призори из брачног живота)
1974 - Misantropen
1975 - Trollflöjten (Чаробна флаута)
1976 - Ansikte mot ansikte (Face to Face)
1977 - The Serpent`s Egg
1978 - Höstsonaten (Јесења соната)
1979 - Fårö-dokument 1979
1980 - Aus dem Leben der Marionetten (From the Life of the Marionettes)
1982 - Fanny och Alexander (Фани и Александар)
1983 - Hustruskolan
1984 - Efter repetitionen (After the Rehearsal)
1984 - Karins ansikte (Karin`s Face)
1986 - Dokument Fanny och Alexander (The Making of Fanny and Alexander)
1986 - Två saliga, De
1992 - Markisinnan de Sade
1993 - Backanterna
1995 - Sista skriket (The Last Gasp)
1997 - Larmar och gör sig till (In the Presence of a Clown)
2000 - Bildmakarna
2003 - Saraband
Pisac Uredi
1944 - Hets (Torment)
1946 - Det regnar på vår kärlek (Man with an Umbrella)
1946 - Kris (Crisis)
1947 - Kvinna utan ansikte (Woman Without a Face)
1947 - Skepp till India land (A Ship Bound for India)
1948 - Eva
1948 - Hamnstad (Port of Call)
1948 - Musik i mörker (Music in Darkness)
1949 - Fängelse (Prison)
1950 - Medan staden sover (While the City Sleeps)
1950 - Till glädje (To Joy)
1951 - Frånskild (Divorced)
1951 - Sommarlek (Summer Interlude)
1952 - Kvinnors väntan (Secrets of Women)
1953 - Gycklarnas afton (The Naked Night)
1953 - Sommaren med Monika (Summer with Monika)
1954 - Lektion i kärlek, En (A Lesson in Love)
1955 - Kvinnodröm (Dreams)
1955 - Sommarnattens leende (Smiles of a Summer Night)
1956 - Sista paret ut (Last Pair Out)
1957 - Nattens ljus (Night Light)
1957 - Sjunde inseglet, Det (The Seventh Seal)
1957 - Smultronstället (Wild Strawberries)
1958 - Ansiktet (The Magician)
1958 - Nära livet (Brink of Life)
1960 - Djävulens öga (The Devil`s Eye)
1961 - Lustgården (The Pleasure Garden)
1961 - Såsom i en spegel (Through a Glass Darkly)
1963 - Nattvardsgästerna (Winter Light)
1963 - Trämålning
1963 - Tystnaden (The Silence)
1964 - För att inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor (Now About These Women)
1966 - Persona
1967 - Stimulantia
1968 - Skammen (Shame)
1968 - Vargtimmen (Hour of the Wolf)
1969 - Passion, En (The Passion of Anna)
1969 - Riten (The Ritual)
1970 - Reservatet
1970 - The Lie
1971 - Beröringen (The Touch)
1972 - Viskningar och rop (Cries and Whispers)
1973 - Scener ur ett äktenskap (Scenes from a Marriage)
1976 - Ansikte mot ansikte (Face to Face)
1977 - A Little Night Music
1977 - The Serpent`s Egg
1978 - Höstsonaten (Autumn Sonata)
1980 - Aus dem Leben der Marionetten (From the Life of the Marionettes)
1982 - Fanny och Alexander (Fanny and Alexander)
1984 - Efter repetitionen (After the Rehearsal)
1984 - Karins ansikte (Karin`s Face)
1986 - Dokument Fanny och Alexander (The Making of `Fanny and Alexander`)
1990 - A Little Night Music
1991 - `Goda viljan, Den` (mini TV serija)
1992 - Goda viljan, Den (The Best Intentions)
1992 - Markisinnan de Sade
1992 - Söndagsbarn (Sunday`s Children)
1995 - Sista skriket (The Last Gasp)
1996 - Enskilda samtal (Private Confessions)
1997 - Larmar och gör sig till
2000 - Trolösa (Faithless)
2002 - Persona
2003 - Saraband
2005 - Bergmanova sonata
Glumac Uredi
1944 - Hets (Torment - Voice on the radio)
1947 - Skepp till India land (A Ship Bound for India - Man wearing a beret at the funfair)
1949 - Törst (Thirst - Train passenger)
1950 - Till glädje (To Joy - Expecting father at the maternity ward)
1952 - Kvinnors väntan (Secrets of Women - Man in the stairs at the gynecologist`s)
1954 - Lektion i kärlek, En (A Lesson in Love)
1955 - Kvinnodröm (Dreams - Man with poodle)
1969 - Passion, En (The Passion of Anna - Narrator)
1969 - Riten (The Ritual - Priest)
1975 - Trollflöjten (The Magic Flute - Audience)
1997 - Larmar och gör sig till (Mental patient)
Producent Uredi
1957 - Bakomfilm smultronstället
1960 - Jungfrukällan (The Virgin Spring)
1966 - Persona
1971 - Beröringen (The Touch)
1977 - Paradistorg (Paradise Place)
1978 - Rätt ut i luften
1979 - Min älskade (My Beloved)
1980 - Aus dem Leben der Marionetten (From the Life of the Marionettes)
1981 - Sally och friheten (Sally and Freedom)
Reference

Literatura

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Ernst Ingmar Bergman[a] (14 July 1918 – 30 July 2007) was a Swedish film director, screenwriter, and producer. Considered to be among the most accomplished and influential filmmakers of all time,[1][2][3] Bergman`s films include Smiles of a Summer Night (1955), The Seventh Seal (1957), The Silence (1963), Wild Strawberries (1957), Through a Glass Darkly (1961), Persona (1966), Hour of the Wolf (1969), Cries and Whispers (1972), Scenes from a Marriage (1973), and Fanny and Alexander (1982); the last two exist in extended television versions.

Bergman directed over sixty films and documentaries for cinematic release and for television screenings, most of which he also wrote. His theatrical career continued in parallel and included periods as Leading Director of the Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm and of the Residenztheater in Munich.[4] He also directed over 170 plays. He eventually forged a creative partnership with his cinematographers Gunnar Fischer and Sven Nykvist. Among his company of actors were Harriet Andersson, Bibi Andersson, Liv Ullmann, Gunnar Björnstrand, Erland Josephson, Ingrid Thulin, and Max von Sydow. Most of his films were set in Sweden, and many films from Through a Glass Darkly (1961) onward were filmed on the island of Fårö.

Philip French referred to Bergman as `one of the greatest artists of the 20th century ... he found in literature and the performing arts a way of both recreating and questioning the human condition.`[5] Director Martin Scorsese commented: `If you were alive in the 50s and the 60s and of a certain age, a teenager on your way to becoming an adult, and you wanted to make movies, I don`t see how you couldn`t be influenced by Bergman ....It`s impossible to overestimate the effect that those films had on people.`[6] Bergman was ranked 7th in director`s poll on Sight & Sound`s 2002 list of The Greatest Directors of All Time.[7]

Biography Edit

Early life Edit

Young Bergman
Ernst Ingmar Bergman was born on 14 July 1918 in Uppsala, Sweden,[8] the son of Erik Bergman, a Lutheran minister and later chaplain to the King of Sweden, and Karin (née Åkerblom), a nurse who also had Walloon[9] ancestors.[10] The Bergman family was originally from Järvsö in Gävleborg county. Bergman`s paternal grandfather worked as a pharmacist in Stockholm, and his paternal great grandfather Henrik Bergman worked as an assistant vicar and was married to Erika Augusta Agrell, daughter of vicar Erik Agrell and Elsa Margareta Hermanni, a daughter of chief accountant Hieronymus Emanuel Hermanni and Anna Katarina Neostadia. The Hermannis were merchants in Stockholm, Hieronymus` father, Simon Daniel, was wholesaler like his grandfather. Via Elsa Margareta Hermanni, Bergman descended from the noble families Bröms, Stockenström, Ehrenskiöld, clergy families of Swedish, Swedish-Finnish origin and burghers of Swedish and German origin. Via his paternal grandmother Alma Katarina Eneroth, Bergman descended from the German noble families Flach[disambiguation needed] and de Frese introduced at the Swedish Riddarhuset. Alma Katarina Eneroth was a cousin of Bergman`s maternal grandfather traffic manager Johan Åkerblom. Thus Bergman`s parents were second cousins. Bergman`s maternal granddmother, Anna Calwagen, was the daughter of Ernst Gottfrid Calwagen, a lector of German and English, and his wife Charlotta Margareta Carsberg. The progenitor of the Calwagen family, the merchant Paul Calwagen, had emigrated from Holland to Karlshamn, Sweden in the 17th century. Paul`s wife, the Dutch-Swedish Maria van der Hagen, was descendant of the Dutch-Swedish court painter Laurens van der Plas. Via Ernst Gottfried, Bergman was descendant of the noble families Tigerschiöld and Weinholz as well as the Bure[disambiguation needed] family.[11]

He grew up with his older brother Dag and sister Margareta surrounded by religious imagery and discussion. His father was a conservative parish minister with strict ideas of parenting. Ingmar was locked up in dark closets for infractions such as wetting himself. `While father preached away in the pulpit and the congregation prayed, sang, or listened`, Ingmar wrote in his autobiography Laterna Magica,

I devoted my interest to the church`s mysterious world of low arches, thick walls, the smell of eternity, the coloured sunlight quivering above the strangest vegetation of medieval paintings and carved figures on ceilings and walls. There was everything that one`s imagination could desire—angels, saints, dragons, prophets, devils, humans ...
Although raised in a devout Lutheran household, Bergman later stated that he lost his faith when aged eight, and only came to terms with this fact while making Winter Light in 1962.[12] His interest in theatre and film began early: `At the age of nine, he traded a set of tin soldiers for a magic lantern, a possession that altered the course of his life. Within a year, he had created, by playing with this toy, a private world in which he felt completely at home, he recalled. He fashioned his own scenery, marionettes, and lighting effects and gave puppet productions of Strindberg plays in which he spoke all the parts.`[13][14]

Bergman attended Palmgren`s School as a teenager. His school years were unhappy,[15] and he remembered them unfavourably in later years. In a 1944 letter concerning the film Torment (sometimes known as Frenzy), which sparked debate on the condition of Swedish high schools (and which Bergman had written),[16] the school`s principal Henning Håkanson wrote, among other things, that Bergman had been a `problem child`.[17] Bergman wrote in a response that he had strongly disliked the emphasis on homework and testing in his formal schooling.

In 1934, aged 16, he was sent to Germany to spend the summer holidays with family friends. He attended a Nazi rally in Weimar at which he saw Adolf Hitler.[18] He later wrote in Laterna Magica (The Magic Lantern) about the visit to Germany, describing how the German family had put a portrait of Hitler on the wall by his bed, and that `for many years, I was on Hitler`s side, delighted by his success and saddened by his defeats`.[19] Bergman commented that `Hitler was unbelievably charismatic. He electrified the crowd. ... The Nazism I had seen seemed fun and youthful`.[20] Bergman did two five-month stretches in Sweden of mandatory military service.[21]

Bergman enrolled at Stockholm University College (later renamed Stockholm University) in 1937, to study art and literature. He spent most of his time involved in student theatre and became a `genuine movie addict`.[22] At the same time, a romantic involvement led to a physical confrontation with his father which resulted in a break in their relationship which lasted for many years. Although he did not graduate from the university, he wrote a number of plays and an opera, and became an assistant director at a local theatre. In 1942, he was given the opportunity to direct one of his own scripts, Caspar`s Death. The play was seen by members of Svensk Filmindustri, which then offered Bergman a position working on scripts. He married Else Fisher in 1943.

Film career until 1975 Edit

Bergman in 1957
Bergman`s film career began in 1941 with his work rewriting scripts, but his first major accomplishment was in 1944 when he wrote the screenplay for Torment (a.k.a. Frenzy) (Hets), a film directed by Alf Sjöberg. Along with writing the screenplay, he was also appointed assistant director of the film. In his second autobiographical book, Images: My Life in Film, Bergman describes the filming of the exteriors as his actual film directorial debut.[23] The film sparked debate on Swedish formal education. When Henning Håkanson (the principal of the high school Bergman had attended) wrote a letter following the film`s release, Bergman, according to scholar Frank Gado, disparaged in a response what he viewed as Håkanson`s implication that students `who did not fit some arbitrary prescription of worthiness deserved the system`s cruel neglect`.[16] Bergman also stated in the letter that he `hated school as a principle, as a system and as an institution. And as such I have definitely not wanted to criticize my own school, but all schools.`[24][25] The international success of this film led to Bergman`s first opportunity to direct a year later. During the next ten years he wrote and directed more than a dozen films, including Prison (Fängelse) in 1949, as well as Sawdust and Tinsel (Gycklarnas afton) and Summer with Monika (Sommaren med Monika), both released in 1953.


Bergman and Victor Sjöström on the set of Wild Strawberries (1957)
Bergman first achieved worldwide success with Smiles of a Summer Night (Sommarnattens leende, 1955), which won for `Best poetic humour` and was nominated for the Palme d`Or at Cannes the following year. This was followed by The Seventh Seal (Det sjunde inseglet) and Wild Strawberries (Smultronstället), released in Sweden ten months apart in 1957. The Seventh Seal won a special jury prize and was nominated for the Palme d`Or at Cannes, and Wild Strawberries won numerous awards for Bergman and its star, Victor Sjöström. Bergman continued to be productive for the next two decades. From the early 1960s, he spent much of his life on the island of Fårö, where he made several films.

In the early 1960s he directed three films that explored the theme of faith and doubt in God, Through a Glass Darkly (Såsom i en Spegel, 1961), Winter Light (Nattvardsgästerna, 1962), and The Silence (Tystnaden, 1963). Critics created the notion that the common themes in these three films made them a trilogy or cinematic triptych. Bergman initially responded that he did not plan these three films as a trilogy and that he could not see any common motifs in them, but he later seemed to adopt the notion, with some equivocation.[26][27] His parody of the films of Federico Fellini, All These Women (För att inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor) was released in 1964.[28]

Largely a two-hander with Bibi Andersson and Liv Ullmann, Persona (1966) is a film that Bergman himself considered one of his most important works. While the highly experimental film won few awards, it has been considered his masterpiece. Other films of the period include The Virgin Spring (Jungfrukällan, 1960), Hour of the Wolf (Vargtimmen, 1968), Shame (Skammen, 1968) and The Passion of Anna (En Passion, 1969). With his cinematographer Sven Nykvist, Bergman made use of a crimson color scheme for Cries and Whispers (1972), which received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Picture.[29] He also produced extensively for Swedish television at this time. Two works of note were Scenes from a Marriage (Scener ur ett äktenskap, 1973) and The Magic Flute (Trollflöjten, 1975).


Bergman with his long-time cinematographer Sven Nykvist during the production of Through a Glass Darkly (1960)
Tax evasion charges in 1976 Edit
On 30 January 1976, while rehearsing August Strindberg`s The Dance of Death at the Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm, he was arrested by two plainclothes police officers and charged with income tax evasion. The impact of the event on Bergman was devastating. He suffered a nervous breakdown as a result of the humiliation, and was hospitalised in a state of deep depression.

The investigation was focused on an alleged 1970 transaction of 500,000 Swedish kronor (SEK) between Bergman`s Swedish company Cinematograf and its Swiss subsidiary Persona, an entity that was mainly used for the paying of salaries to foreign actors. Bergman dissolved Persona in 1974 after having been notified by the Swedish Central Bank and subsequently reported the income. On 23 March 1976, the special prosecutor Anders Nordenadler dropped the charges against Bergman, saying that the alleged crime had no legal basis, saying it would be like bringing `charges against a person who has stolen his own car, thinking it was someone else`s`.[30] Director General Gösta Ekman, chief of the Swedish Internal Revenue Service, defended the failed investigation, saying that the investigation was dealing with important legal material and that Bergman was treated just like any other suspect. He expressed regret that Bergman had left the country, hoping that Bergman was a `stronger` person now when the investigation had shown that he had not done any wrong.[31]

Although the charges were dropped, Bergman became disconsolate, fearing he would never again return to directing. Despite pleas by the Swedish prime minister Olof Palme, high public figures, and leaders of the film industry, he vowed never to work in Sweden again. He closed down his studio on the island of Fårö, suspended two announced film projects, and went into self-imposed exile in Munich, Germany. Harry Schein, director of the Swedish Film Institute, estimated the immediate damage as ten million SEK (kronor) and hundreds of jobs lost.[32]

Aftermath following arrest Edit
Bergman then briefly considered the possibility of working in America; his next film, The Serpent`s Egg (1977) was a German-U.S. production and his second English-language film (the first being The Touch, 1971). This was followed by a British-Norwegian co-production, Autumn Sonata (Höstsonaten, 1978) starring Ingrid Bergman (no relation), and From the Life of the Marionettes (Aus dem Leben der Marionetten, 1980) which was a British-German co-production.

He temporarily returned to his homeland to direct Fanny and Alexander (Fanny och Alexander, 1982). Bergman stated that the film would be his last, and that afterwards he would focus on directing theatre. After that he wrote several film scripts and directed a number of television specials. As with previous work for television, some of these productions were later theatrically released. The last such work was Saraband (2003), a sequel to Scenes from a Marriage and directed by Bergman when he was 84 years old.

Although he continued to operate from Munich, by mid-1978 Bergman had overcome some of his bitterness toward the Swedish government. In July of that year he visited Sweden, celebrating his sixtieth birthday on the island of Fårö, and partly resumed his work as a director at Royal Dramatic Theatre. To honour his return, the Swedish Film Institute launched a new Ingmar Bergman Prize to be awarded annually for excellence in filmmaking.[33] Still, he remained in Munich until 1984. In one of the last major interviews with Bergman, conducted in 2005 on the island of Fårö, Bergman said that despite being active during the exile, he had effectively lost eight years of his professional life.[34]

Retirement and death Edit
Bergman retired from filmmaking in December 2003. He had hip surgery in October 2006 and was making a difficult recovery. He died in his sleep[35] at age 89; his body was found at his home on the island of Fårö, on 30 July 2007, sixteen days after his 89th birthday.[36] (It was the same day another renowned existentialist film director, Michelangelo Antonioni, died.) The interment was private, at the Fårö Church on 18 August 2007. A place in the Fårö churchyard was prepared for him under heavy secrecy. Although he was buried on the island of Fårö, his name and date of birth were inscribed under his wife`s name on a tomb at Roslagsbro churchyard, Norrtälje Municipality, several years before his death.

Filmography Edit

Main article: Ingmar Bergman filmography
Selected work:

Crisis (1946)
It Rains on Our Love (1946)
A Ship Bound for India (1947)
Port of Call (1948)
Prison (1949)
Thirst (1949)
To Joy (1950)
This Can`t Happen Here (1950)
Summer Interlude (1951)
Secrets of Women (1952)
Summer with Monika (1953)
Sawdust and Tinsel (1953)
A Lesson in Love (1954)
Dreams (1955)
Smiles of a Summer Night (1955)
The Seventh Seal (1957)
Wild Strawberries (1957)
Brink of Life (1958)
The Magician (1958)
The Virgin Spring (1960)
The Devil`s Eye (1960)
Through a Glass Darkly (1961)
Winter Light (1963)
The Silence (1963)
All These Women (1964)
Persona (1966)
Stimulantia (1967)
Hour of the Wolf (1968)
Shame (1968)
The Rite (1969)
The Passion of Anna (1969)
The Touch (1971)
Cries and Whispers (1972)
Scenes from a Marriage (1973)
Face to Face (1976)
The Serpent`s Egg (1977)
Autumn Sonata (1978)
Fanny and Alexander (1982)
Style of working Edit

Repertory company Edit

Bergman and actress Ingrid Thulin during the production of The Silence, 1963
Bergman developed a personal `repertory company` of Swedish actors whom he repeatedly cast in his films, including Max von Sydow, Bibi Andersson, Harriet Andersson, Erland Josephson, Ingrid Thulin, Gunnel Lindblom, and Gunnar Björnstrand, each of whom appeared in at least five Bergman features. Norwegian actress Liv Ullmann, who appeared in nine of Bergman`s films and one televisual film (Saraband), was the last to join this group (in the film Persona), and ultimately became the most closely associated with Bergman, both artistically and personally. They had a daughter together, Linn Ullmann (born 1966).

In Bergman`s working arrangement with Sven Nykvist, his best-known cinematographer, the two men developed sufficient rapport to allow Bergman not to worry about the composition of a shot until the day before it was filmed. On the morning of the shoot, he would briefly speak to Nykvist about the mood and composition he hoped for, and then leave Nykvist to work, lacking interruption or comment until post-production discussion of the next day`s work.

Financing Edit

A great number of Bergman`s interior scenes were filmed at the Filmstaden studios north of Stockholm
By Bergman`s own account, he never had a problem with funding. He cited two reasons for this: one, that he did not live in the United States, which he viewed as obsessed with box-office earnings; and two, that his films tended to be low-budget affairs. (Cries and Whispers, for instance, was finished for about $450,000, while Scenes from a Marriage, a six-episode television feature, cost only $200,000.)[37]

Technique Edit
Bergman usually wrote his films` screenplays, thinking about them for months or years before starting the actual process of writing, which he viewed as somewhat tedious. His earlier films are carefully constructed and are either based on his plays or written in collaboration with other authors. Bergman stated that in his later works, when on occasion his actors would want to do things differently from his own intention, he would let them, noting that the results were often `disastrous` when he did not do so. As his career progressed, Bergman increasingly let his actors improvise their dialogue. In his later films, he wrote just the ideas informing the scene and allowed his actors to determine the exact dialogue. When viewing daily rushes, Bergman stressed the importance of being critical but unemotive, claiming that he asked himself not if the work was great or terrible, but rather if it was sufficient or needed to be reshot.[37]

Subjects Edit
Bergman`s films usually deal with existential questions of mortality, loneliness, and religious faith. In addition to these cerebral topics, however, sexual desire features in the foreground of most of his films, whether the central event is medieval plague (The Seventh Seal), upper-class family activity in early twentieth century Uppsala (Fanny and Alexander), or contemporary alienation (The Silence). His female characters are usually more in touch with their sexuality than their male equivalents, and unafraid to proclaim it, sometimes with breathtaking overtness (as in Cries and Whispers) as would define the work of `the conjurer,` as Bergman called himself in a 1960 TIME cover story.[38] In an interview with Playboy in 1964, he said: `The manifestation of sex is very important, and particularly to me, for above all, I don`t want to make merely intellectual films. I want audiences to feel, to sense my films. This to me is much more important than their understanding them.` Film, Bergman said, was his demanding mistress.[39] While he was a social democrat as an adult, Bergman stated that `as an artist I`m not politically involved ... I don`t make propaganda for either one attitude or the other.`[40]

Bergman`s views on his career Edit
When asked in the series of interviews later titled `Ingmar Bergman – 3 dokumentärer om film, teater, Fårö och livet` conducted by Marie Nyreröd for Swedish TV and released in 2004, Bergman said that of his works, he held Winter Light,[41] Persona, and Cries and Whispers[42] in the highest regard. There he also states that he managed to push the envelope of film making in the films Persona and Cries and Whispers. Bergman stated on numerous occasions (for example in the interview book Bergman on Bergman) that The Silence meant the end of the era in which religious questions were a major concern of his films. Bergman said that he would get depressed by his own films: `jittery and ready to cry... and miserable.`[43] In the same interview he also stated: `If there is one thing I miss about working with films, it is working with Sven` (Nykvist), the third cinematographer with whom he had collaborated.

Theatrical work Edit
Main article: List of stage productions directed by Ingmar Bergman
Although Bergman was universally famous for his contribution to cinema, he was also an active and productive stage director all his life. During his studies at what was then Stockholm University College, he became active in its student theatre, where he made a name for himself early on. His first work after graduation was as a trainee-director at a Stockholm theatre. At twenty-six years, he became the youngest theatrical manager in Europe at the Helsingborg City Theatre. He stayed at Helsingborg for three years and then became the director at Gothenburg city theatre from 1946 to 1949.

He became director of the Malmö City Theatre in 1953, and remained for seven years. Many of his star actors were people with whom he began working on stage. He was the director of the Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm from 1960 to 1966, and manager from 1963 to 1966, where he began a long-time collaboration with choreographer Donya Feuer.

After Bergman left Sweden because of the tax evasion incident, he became director of the Residenz Theatre of Munich, Germany (1977–1984). He remained active in theatre throughout the 1990s and made his final production on stage with Henrik Ibsen`s The Wild Duck at the Royal Dramatic Theatre in 2002.

Personal life Edit

Marriages and children Edit

The grave of Bergman and his last wife Ingrid
Bergman was married five times:

25 March 1943 – 1945, to Else Fisher (1 March 1918 – 3 March 2006), choreographer and dancer (divorced). Offspring:
Lena Bergman, actress, born 1943.
22 July 1945 – 1950, to Ellen Lundström (23 April 1919 – 6 March 2007), choreographer and film director (divorced). Children:
Eva Bergman, film director, born 1945
Jan Bergman, film director (1946–2000)
the twins Mats and Anna Bergman, both actors and film directors, born in 1948.
1951 – 1959, to Gun Grut (1916–1971), journalist (divorced). Offspring:
Ingmar Bergman Jr., retired airline captain, born 1951.
1959 – 1969, to Käbi Laretei (14 July 1922 – 31 October 2014), concert pianist (divorced). Offspring:
Daniel Bergman, film director, born 1962.
11 November 1971 – 20 May 1995, to Ingrid von Rosen (maiden name Karlebo). Offspring:
Maria von Rosen, author, born 1959.
The first four marriages ended in divorce, while the last ended when his wife Ingrid died of stomach cancer in 1995, aged 65. Aside from his marriages, Bergman had romantic relationships with actresses Harriet Andersson (1952–1955), Bibi Andersson (1955–1959), and Liv Ullmann (1965–1970). He was the father of writer Linn Ullmann with Ullmann. In all, Bergman had nine children, one of whom predeceased him. Bergman eventually married all the mothers of his children, with the exception of Liv Ullmann. His daughter with his last wife, Ingrid von Rosen, was born twelve years before their marriage. He had dozens of mistresses throughout his life and would justify the affairs to his various wives by telling them: “I have so many lives.”[44]

Although Bergman once described himself as one who had lost his faith in an afterlife, Max von Sydow stated in an interview that he had had many discussions with him about religion, and indicated that Bergman`s belief in the afterlife was restored.[45]

Awards and nominations Edit

Main article: List of accolades and awards received by Ingmar Bergman
In 1958, he won the Best Director award for Brink of Life at the Cannes Film Festival,[46] and won the Golden Bear for Wild Strawberries at the Berlin International Film Festival.[47] In 1960 Bergman was featured in the cover of TIME, the first foreign-language filmmaker to do so since Leni Riefenstahl in 1936.[48][49] In 1971, Bergman received the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award at the Academy Awards ceremony. Three of his films (Through a Glass Darkly, The Virgin Spring, and Fanny and Alexander) won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. In 1997, he was awarded the Palme des Palmes (Palm of the Palms) at the 50th anniversary of the Cannes Film Festival. He won many other awards and has been nominated for numerous other awards.

Academy Awards

Year Category Nominated work Result
1959 Best Original Screenplay Wild Strawberries Nominated
1960 Best Foreign Language Film The Virgin Spring Won
1961 Best Foreign Language Film Through a Glass Darkly Won
1962 Best Original Screenplay Nominated
1973 Best Picture Cries and Whispers Nominated
Best Director Nominated
Best Original Screenplay Nominated
1976 Best Director Face to Face Nominated
1978 Best Original Screenplay Autumn Sonata Nominated
1983 Best Foreign Language Film Fanny and Alexander Won
Best Director Nominated
Best Original Screenplay Nominated
Legacy Edit

See also: List of accolades and awards received by Ingmar Bergman and The Dove (1968 film)

A bust of Bergman in Celebrity Alley in Kielce, Poland
Bergman`s work was a point of reference and inspiration for director Woody Allen. He described Bergman as “probably the greatest film artist, all things considered, since the invention of the motion picture camera”.[50] Bergman`s films are mentioned and praised in Annie Hall and others of Allen`s films. Allen also admired Bergman`s longtime director of photography Sven Nykvist and invited him to be his DP on Crimes and Misdemeanors.[51] In 2002, Bergman was listed at number nine on the British Film Institute`s Sight & Sound list of the top ten film directors of modern times.[52] In 2017 New York magazine ranked Bergman at number 55 on their list of The 100 Best Screenwriters of All Time.[53]

After Bergman died, a large archive of notes was donated to the Swedish Film Institute. Among the notes are several unpublished and unfinished scripts both for stage and films, and many more ideas for works in different stages of development. A never-performed play has the title Kärlek utan älskare (`Love without lovers`), and has the note `Complete disaster!` written on the envelope; the play is about a director who disappears and an editor who tries to complete a work he has left unfinished. Other canceled projects include the script for a pornographic film which Bergman abandoned since he did not think it was alive enough, a play about a cannibal, some loose scenes set inside a womb, a film about the life of Jesus, a film about The Merry Widow, and a play with the title Från sperm till spöke (`From sperm to spook`).[54] The Swedish director Marcus Lindeen went through the material, and inspired by Kärlek utan älskare he took samples from many of the works and turned them into a play, titled Arkivet för orealiserbara drömmar och visioner (`The archive for unrealisable dreams and visions`). Lindeen`s play premiered on 28 May 2012 at the Stockholm City Theatre.[54]

Terrence Rafferty of The New York Times wrote that throughout the 1960s, when Bergman `was considered pretty much the last word in cinematic profundity, his every tic was scrupulously pored over, analyzed, elaborated in ingenious arguments about identity, the nature of film, the fate of the artist in the modern world and so on.`[55]

Danish Director Thomas Vinterberg has cited Bergman as one of his major influences, `Bergman is always in my head. He is part of my upbringing and I was fortunate to meet him and get advice from him.`[56] In 1996, Entertainment Weekly ranked Bergman at No. 8 in its `50 Greatest Directors` list.[57][58] Bergman was ranked at No. 36 on Empire magazine`s `Top 40 Greatest Directors of All-Time` list in 2005.[57] In 2007, Total Film magazine ranked Bergman at No. 7 on its `100 Greatest Film Directors Ever` list.[59]

Writer and director Richard Ayoade counts Bergman as one of his inspirations. In 2017, the British Film Institute (BFI) hosted an Ingmar Bergman season and Ayoade said in a Guardian interview that he saw everything in it, `which was one of the best two months ever.`[60] The BFI`s programme included a discussion with Ayoade on Bergman`s 1966 film, Persona, before a screening.[61]

Skuplje knjige možete platiti na rate.

DOK JE SEZONA VIRUSA KNJIGE MOŽDA NEĆEMO SLATI BAŠ SVAKI DAN
IMAJTE RAZUMEVANJA AKO POŠILJKA BUDE STIGLA KOJI DAN KASNIJE (Što ne znači da ne može stići i dan odmah posle narudžbine, zavisi kako se pogodi)
Takođe, mnogo ređe idemo za Beograd, tako da ne računate na lično preuzimanje u Beogradu ukoliko vam je hitno potreban kupljeni predmet.
Poštarina za knjige je u proseku 130-144 dinara, što je mala suma da bi se izlagali riziku i mi i vi, tako da preporučujemo da se transakcije obave putem pošte.
Novi Sad lično preuzimanje ili svaki dan ili četvrtak, petak i subota.

Našu kompletnu ponudu možete videti preko linka
https://www.kupindo.com/Clan/H.C.E/SpisakPredmeta
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Pogledajte i našu ponudu na limundu https://www.limundo.com/Clan/H.C.E/SpisakAukcija
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Beograd: lično preuzimanje Žarkovo (kod pijace, preko puta Vera), eventualno centar ako nam se potrefe termini dolaska.
U Novom Sadu lično preuzimanje na Grbavici ili u centru po dogovoru.
Slanje nakon uplate na račun u Erste banci (ukoliko ne želite da plaćate po preuzimanju). Poštarina za jednu knjigu je uglavnom oko 120 - 150 din. Slanje vise knjiga u paketu tezem od 2 kg 290-305 din.

INOSTRANSTVO: Šaljem po dogovoru, ili po prijateljima ili autobusom, jer je poštarina od 700 do 3000 din. zavisno od težine knjige, ali ukoliko želite moguće je i poštom. U Beč idem često pa knjige mogu doneti lično.

Ukoliko kupujete više od jedne knjige javite se porukom možda Vam mogu dati određeni popust na neke naslove.

Sve knjige su detaljno uslikane, ako Vas još nešto interesuje slobodno pitajte porukom. Reklamacije primamo samo ukoliko nam prvo pošaljete knjigu nazad da vidim u čemu je problem pa nakon toga vraćamo novac. Jednom smo prevareni od strane člana koji nam je vratio potpuno drugu knjigu od one koju smo mu mi poslali, tako da više ne vraćamo novac pre nego što vidimo da li se radi o našoj knjizi.
Ukoliko Vam neka pošiljka ne stigne za dva ili tri dana, odmah nas kontaktirajte za broj pošiljke kako bi videli u čemu je problem. Ne čekajte da prođe više vremena, pogotovo ako ste iz inostranstva, jer nakon određenog vremena pošiljke se vraćaju pošiljaocu, tako da bi morali da platimo troškove povratka i ponovnog slanja. Potvrde o slanju čuvamo do 10 dana. U 99% slučajeva sve prolazi glatko, ali nikad se ne zna.

ukoliko uvažimo vašu reklamaciju ne snosimo troškove poštarine

Predmet: 67150633
Unutra dobro očuvano
Korice kao naslici
Ilustrovano fotografijamaiz filmova

4 scenarija

1960


Ernst Ingmar Bergman (šved. Ernst Ingmar Bergman; Upsala, 14. jul 1918 — Faro, 30. jul 2007) bio je švedski filmski, pozorišni i televizijski režiser, scenarista i producent. Priznat je kao jedan od najveštijih i najuticajnih filmskih režisera svih vremena.[1]

Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman Smultronstallet.jpg
Ingmar Bergman u toku produkcije Divljih jagoda
Puno ime
Ernst Ingmar Bergman
Datum rođenja
14. jul 1918.
Mesto rođenja
Upsala
 Švedska
Datum smrti
30. jul 2007. (89 god.)
Mesto smrti
Faro
 Švedska
Supružnik
Else Fišer (1943–45)
Elen Lundstrem (1945–50)
Gun Grut (1951–59)
Kabi Laretei (1959–69)
Ingrid fon Rosen (1971–95)
Aktivni period
1944–2005
Zanimanje
Filmski režiser, scenarista i producent
Potpis
Ingmar Bergman Signature.png
Veza do IMDb-a
Nagrade
Ostale nagrade Nagrada Gete
Praemium Imperiale
Režirao je preko 60 filmova i dokumentarnih filmova za bioskopska izdanja i televiziju, za koju je većinu napisao scenario. Takođe je režirao preko 1070 pozorišnih predstava. Glumci koji su glumili u njegovim filmovima su: Harijet Anderson, Liv Ulman, Gunar Bjernstrand, Bibi Anderson, Erland Josefson, Ingrid Tulin i Maks fon Sidou. Njegovi filmovi se obično bave smrću, bolešću, verom, izdajom, sumornošću i ludilom.

Mladost Uredi


Mladi Bergman.
Ingmar Bergman je rođen u Upsali u Švedskoj kao sin Erika Bergmana, luteranskog sveštenika, a kasnije kapelana kralja Švedske i Karin, medicinske sestre koja je, takođe, imala valonske[2] korene. Odrastao je sa svojim starijim bratom Dagom i sestrom Margaritom okružen verskom slikom i diskusijom. Njegov otac je bio konzervativan parohijski sveštenik sa strogim roditeljskim vaspitavanjem. Ingmar je zatvaran u mračnim ormanima za “prekršaje”, kao što je enureza. „Dok je otac propovedao, molio, pevao ili slušao“, Ingmar je napisao u svojoj autobiografskoj knjizi Čarobna lampa:

Posvetio sam interes misteriji crkvenog sveta malih lukova, debelih zidova, mirisu večnosti, obojenih sunčevih svetlosti iznad najčudnijih vegetacija srednjovekovnih slika i urezanih figura na plafonima i zidovima. Bilo je svega što jedna mašta može da poželi — anđeli, sveci, zmajevi, proroci, đavoli, ljudi.
Iako je odrastao u pobožnom luteranskom domaćinstvu, Bergman je kasnije izjavio da je veru izgubio u osmoj godini života i da se samo nagodio sa ovom činjenicom dok je režirao film Zimsko svetlo.[3] Bergmanovo interesovanje za pozorište i film počelo je rano: „U devetoj godini, menjao je olovne vojnike za čarobnu lampu, koja je promenila tok njegovog života. U toku godine, on je stvorio, igrajući se sa svojim igračkama, privatni svet u kojem se osećao potpuno kao kod kuće. Pravio je sopstvene dekoracije, marionete i svetlosne efekte dajući marionetama uloge u Strindbergovim pozorišnim komadima u kojima je on govorio u svim delovima.”

Godine 1936., u svojoj 18. godini, poslat je u Nemačku na letnji raspust sa porodičnim prijateljima. Prisustvovao je mitingu nacista u Vajmaru na kojem je video Adolfa Hitlera.[4] Kasnije je napisao u Čarobnoj lampi o poseti Nemačkoj, opisujući kako je nemačka porodica stavila portret Adolfa Hitlera na zid iznad njegovog krevata i da je „mnogo godina bio na strani Hitlera, oduševljen njegovim uspehom i tužan zbog njegovih poraza.“ Bergman je prokomentarisao da je „Hitler bio neverovatno harizmatičan. Elektrifikovao je publiku... Nacizam koji sam video izgledao je zabavno i mladalački“.[5] Bergman je služio dva od pet meseci obaveznog vojnog roka.[6]

Godine 1937. upisao je umetnost i književnost na Stokholskom univerzitetu. Većinu vremena proveo je u studentskom pozorištu i postao je “pravi filmski zavisnik”.[7] Iako nije diplomirao, napisao je brojne pozorišne predstave, kao i opere, i postao asistent režisera u pozorištu. 1942. godine ponuđeno mu je da režira jednu od svojih predstava, Kasparova smrt. Predstavu su videli članovi Svensk Filmindustri produkcijske kuće, koji su zatim Bergmanu ponudili mesto scenariste. 1943. godine oženio je Elsu Fišer.

Karijera Uredi

Filmski rad Uredi
Bergmanova filmska karijera počela je 1941. sa njegovim preuređenim scenarijima, ali njegov prvi uspeh bio je 1944. kada je napisao scenario za Mučenje, fulm u režiji Alfa Šeberga. Uporedo sa pisanjem scenarija, takođe je dobio mesto asistenta režisera za film. U svojoj drugoj autobiografskoj knjizi, Slike: Moj život u filmu, Bergman opisuje snimanje spoljašnosti kao njegov stvarni filmski rediteljski debi.[8] Međunarodni uspeh ovog filma daje Bergmanu prvu priliku da režira godinu dana kasnije. Tokom narednih deset godina, režirao je i napisao više od deset filmova uključujući Zatvor iz 1949, Strugotine i šljokice i Leto sa Monikom oba filma iz 1953. godine.


Ingmar Bergman i Viktor Šestrem na snimanju Divljih jagoda 1957. godine.
Bergmanov prvi ostvareni svetski uspeh je film Osmesi letnje noći iz 1955, koji je dobio nagradu Najbolji poetski humor i bio nominovan za Zlatnu palmu naredne godine. Uspeh je praćen filmovima Sedmi pečat i Divlje jagode, prikazani u Švedskoj 1957. godine. Sedmi pečat je dobio specijalnu nagradu žirija i bio nominovan za Zlatnu palmu u Kanu, a Divlje jagode brojne nagrade za Bergmana i Viktora Šestrema. Odd početka 1960-ih, većinu svog života proveo je na švedskom ostrvu Faro, gde je snimio nekoliko filmova.

U ranim 1960-im režirao je tri filma koji istražuju temu vere i sumnje u Boga Kroz mračno staklo iz 1961, Zimsko svetlo iz 1962. i Tišina iz 1963. godine. Kritičari su stvorili utisak da je zajednička tema u ova tri filma napravila od njih trilogiju ili sinematski triptih. Bergman je u početku odgovorio da nije imao nameru da od ova tri filma napravi triologiju i da nije mogao da vidi bilo kakve zajedničke motive u njima, ali je kasnije izgledalo da je usvojen utisak, sa nekim dvosmislenostima.[9] 1964. godine snimio je Sve te žene, parodiju filma Osam i po.[10]

Godine 1966. režirao je Personu, film za koji on smatra da je jedno od njegovih najznačajnijih dela. Dok je šokantno eksperimentalni film dobio nekoliko nagrada, mnogi smatraju film njegovim remek-delom. Ostali značajni filmovi iz perioda uključuju Devičanski izvor iz 1960, Vučje vreme, Sram oba filma iz 1968. i Strast iz 1969. godine. Filmove koje je snimao za švedsku televiziju su Prizori iz bračnog života iz 1973. i Čarobna frula iz 1975. godine.

Nakon njegovog hapšenja 1976. zbog utaje poreza, Bergman je izjavio da više neće snimati filmove u Švedskoj. Zatvorio je filmski studio na ostrvu Faro i otišao je u izgnanstvo. Ukratko je razmotrio mogućnost da radi u Americi i njegov sledeći film, Zmijsko jaje iz 1977. godine je bio u nemačko-američkoj produkciji i njegov drugi film na engleskom jeziku (prvi je bio Dodir iz 1971). Godinu dana kasnije snimio je film Jesenja sonata u glavnoj ulozi sa Ingrid Bergman. Drugi film koje je režirao je Iz života marioneta iz 1980. godine u britansko-nemačkoj produkciji.

Godine 1982. privremeno se vratio u domovinu da režira Fani i Aleksandar. Bergman je izjavio da će film biti njegov poslednji film, i da će se posle toga preokrenuto pozorišnoj režiji. Od tada, napisao je nekoliko filmskih scenarija i režirao brojne televizijske specijale. Kao i kod prethodnog rada za televiziju, neke od tih produkcija su kasnije izdate za pozorište. Poslednji takav rad bio je Sarabanda iz 2003. godine, nastavak serije Prizori iz bračnog života; imao je 84 godina kada je režirao film.


Ingmar Bergman i njegov dugogodišnji snimatelj Sven Nikvist tokom produkcije filma Kroz mračno staklo (1960).
Repertoarna družina Uredi

Veliki broj Bergmanovih scena snimljen je u Filmstaden studiju severno od Stokholma.
Bergman je okupio ličnu “repertoarnu družinu” švedskih glumaca koje je često angažovao u filmovima, uključujući Maksa fon Sidoua, Bibi Anderson, Harijet Anderson, Erlanda Josefsona, Ingrid Tulin, Gunel Lindblom, Bengta Ekerota, Endersa Eka i Gunara Bjernstranda, od kojih su svi glumili u bar pet Bergmanovih filmova. Norveška glumica Liv Ulman, koja se pojavila u devet Bergmanovih filmova i na jednom TV filmu (Sarabanda), bila je posljednja koja se pridružila družini (1966. u filmu Persona), a posle je postala najbliža Bergmanova saradnica, umetnički i lično. Zajedno su dobili ćerku, Lin Ulman (rođena 1966).

Bergman je 1953. godine započeo saradnju sa svojim snimateljem Svenom Nikvistom. Obojica su razvila i zadržala odličan radni odnos zbog čega Bergman nije morao brinuti oko kompozicije kadra sve do dana pre nego što se snimi. Na jutarnjem snimanju, kratko bi se obratio Nikvistu oko ugođaja i kompozicije kojima se nadao, te ostavio Nikvistu da radi bez ometanja ili komentara.

Finansiranje Uredi
Prema Bergmanovim rečima, nikada nije imao problema sa finansiranjem. Naveo je dva razloga: prvi, to što nije živio u SAD, koje je video kao opsednute zaradom; i drugo, to što su njegovi filmovi bili niskobudžetni. (Krici i šaputanja, na primer, su dovršeni sa oko 450.000 dolara, dok su Prizori iz bračnog života, šestodelni televizijski film, koštali samo 200.000 dolara.)[11]

Tehnika Uredi
Bergman je često sam pisao svoje scenarije, razmišljajući o njima mesecima ili godinama pre početka procesa pisanja, koji je smatrao dosadnim. Njegovi rani filmovi su pažljivo strukturirani, te su temeljeni na njegovim pozorišnim komadima ili scenarijima koje je napisao u saradnji sa drugim autorima. Bergman je izjavio da je u svojim kasnijim radovima dopuštao svojim glumcima da ostvare svoje vizije koje nisu bile u skladu sa njegovima, naglasivši da su rezultati često bili “katastrofalni” kad to ne bi učinio. Kako je njegova karijera napredovala, Bergman je sve više dopuštao glumcima da improviziraju u svojim dijalozima. U svojim posljednjim filmovima je napisao samo ideje informisajući o sceni i dopuštao glumcima da odluče o konačnim dijalozima. Nakon što bi pregledao grube snimke, Bergman je naglašavao važnost da se bude kritičan, ali neemotivan, tvrdeći da se pitao ne da li je njegov rad sjajan ili užasan, nego da li je dovoljan ili bi trebalo da bude ponovo snimljen.[11]


Bergman i glumica Ingrid Tulin tokom produkcije filma Tišina 1963. godine.
Teme Uredi
Bergmanovi filmovi često govore o egzistencijalnim pitanjima smrtnosti, usamljenosti i veri. Iako su njegove teme misaone, seksualna želja se često nalazila na istaknutom mestu, bilo da je okruženje bilo srednjovjekovna kuga (Sedmi pečat), život imućne porodice početkom 20. veka (Fani i Alexandar) ili savremeno otuđenje (Tišina). Njegovi ženski likovi obično su svesniji svoje seksualnosti nego muški, te je se ne boje izraziti. U intervjuu za Plejboj 1964. godine Bergman je rekao: „Manifestacija seksualnosti je jako važna, te posebno meni, iznad svega, ne želim snimati tek intelektualne filmove. Želim da publika oseti moje filmove. To je za mene mnogo važnije nego da ih razumije.“ Film, kaže Bergman, je bila njegova zahtevna ljubavnica.

Bergmanovi pogledi na svoju karijeru Uredi
Kad su ga pitali o njegovim filmovima, Bergman je rekao da Zimsko svetlo[12], Persona i Krici i šaputanja drži svojim najboljim filmovima, iako je u intervjuu 2004. rekao kako je bio “deprimiran” svojim filmovima te da ih više nije mogao gledati.[13] U ovim filmovima, rekao je, uspeo je dovesti medijum do njegovih granica. Bergman je u više prilika izjavio (na primer u knjizi intervjua Bergman na Bergmanu) da je Tišina označila kraj ere kad su religijska pitanja zauzimala istaknuto mesto u njegovim filmovima.

Pozorišni rad Uredi
Iako je Bergman poznat po svom doprinosu u filmu, celi svoj život bio je aktivan i plodan kao pozorišni redatelj. Tokom studija na univerzitetu u Stokholmu, postao je aktivan u svom studentskom pozorištu, gde je ubrzo stekao ime. Nakon diplome prvo je radio kao redatelj-pripravnik u Stokholmskom pozorištu. Sa 26 godina postao je najmlađi rukovodilac pozorišta u Evropi u pozorištu u Helsingborgu. U Helsingborgu je ostao 3 godine, a nakon toga postao je redatelj u pozorištu u Geteborgu od 1946. do 1949. godine.

Godine 1953, postao je redatelj gradskog pozorišta u Malmeu i tamo ostao sledećih sedam godina. Mnogi od njegovih slavnih glumaca bili su ljudi sa kojima je počeo da radi u pozorištu, a deo ljudi iz “Bergmanove trupe” iz filmova iz šezdesetih došlo je iz gradskog pozorišta u Malmeu (Maks fon Sidou, na primer). Od 1960. do 1966. radio je kao redatelj Kraljevskog dramskog pozorišta u Stokholmu, gde je započeo dugogodišnju saradnju sa koreografom Donijom Fjuer.

Nakon što je napustio Švedsku zbog incidenta sa utajom poreza, bio je redatelj Minhenskog Residenz pozorišta (1977—1984). Ostao je aktivan u pozorištu tokom celih devedesetih, a poslednja produkcija bila je Ibzenova Divlja patka u Kraljevskom dramskom pozorištu 2002. godine.

Optužbe za utaju poreza Uredi
Dana 30. januara 1976. gidine, dok je održavao probu Ples smrti Augusta Strindberga u Kraljevskom dramskom pozorištu, uhapšen je i optužen za utaju poreza. Događaj se kobno odrazio na Bergmana. Zbog poniženja je doživio živčani slom te je hospitaliziran u stanju teške depresije.

Istraga se fokusirala na navodnu transakciju od 500.000 švedskih kruna 1970. između Bergmanove švedske kompanije Cinematograf i njene švajcarske podružnice Persona, koja je uglavnom služila za isplatu honorara stranim glumcima. Bergman je 1974. likvidirao kompaniju u Švajcarskoj nakon upozorenja Švajcarske centralne banke i naknadno prijavio porez. 23. marta 1976. specijalni tužilac Anders Nordenadler je odbacio optužbe protiv Bergmana, rekavši da navodni “kriminal” nema zakonske osnove, te ga uporedio sa slučajem “podizanja optužnice protiv osobe koja krade vlastiti auto”.[14] Generalni direktor Švedske porezne uprave, Gesta Ekman, branio je propalu istragu, govoreći da se istraga bavila ozbiljnim zakonskim materijalom te da se prema Bergmanu odnosilo kao prema svakom drugom osumnjičenom. Izrazio je žaljenje nakon što je saznao da je redatelj napustio zemlju, nadajući se da je Bergman “snažnija” osoba sada kad je istraga pokazala da nije učinio ništa pogrešno.[15]

Iako su optužbe odbačene, Bergman je i dalje bio neutešan, bojeći se da se nikad više neće vratiti režiranju. Na kraju se oporavio od šoka, ali uprkos molbama švedskog premijera Ulofa Palmea, visokih javnih figura, i vođa filmske industrije, zakleo se da se nikad više neće vratiti u Švedsku. Zatvorio je svoj studio na ostrvu Faro, otkazao dva najavljena filma i otišao u samovoljni egzil u Minhen u Njemačkoj. Hari Šein, direktor Švedskog filmskog instituta, procenio je trenutnu štetu prouzorkovanu Bergmanovim egzilom na deset miliona švedskih kruna i stotine izgubljenih poslova.[16]

Povratak Uredi
Iako je nastavio da deluje iz Minhena, sredinom 1978. Bergman je nadvladao svoju ogorčenost prema Švedskoj vladi. U julu te godine se vratio u Švedsku, proslavivši 60. rođendan na Farou i delomično nastavio da radi kao redatelj u Kraljevskom dramskom pozorištu. Kako bi odao počast njegovom povratku, Švedski filmski institut je uveo Nagradu Ingmar Bergman za životna dostignuća na području filma.[17] Ipak, ostao je u Minhenu do 1984. U jednom od posljednjih intervjua sa Bergmanom, vođenom 2005. na ostrvu Faro, Bergman je rekao da je uprkos aktivnosti u egzilu, izgubio osam godina svog profesionalnog života.[18]

Od režiranja se povukao krajem 2003. U oktobru 2006. teško se oporavljao od operacije kuka. Umro je mirno u snu,[19] u svom domu na Farou, 30. jula 2007, u 89 godini života,[20] isti dan kad je umro još jedan slavni redatelj, Mikelanđelo Antonioni. Sahranjen je na ostrvu 18. avgusta 2007. na privatnoj ceremoniji. Mesto na goblju na ostrvu Faro pripremljeno je za njega pod strogom tajnom. Iako je sahranjen na ostrvu Faro, njegovo ime i datum rođenja upisan je pod imenom njegove supruge na grublju u Roslagsbrou, nekoliko godine pre njegove smrti.

Švedska banka je 6. aprila 2011. najavila da će se Bergmanov lik pojaviti na novčanici od 200 kruna i da će biti izdata 2014. ili 2015. godine.[21]

Neobjavljeni projekti Uredi
Kada je Bergman umro, velika arhiva projekata donirana je Švedskom filmskom institutu. Među projektima su nekoliko neobjavljenih i nedovršenih scenarija za pozorište i film. Predstava pod nazivom Ljubav bez ljubavnika i sa napomenom potpuna katastrofa! na koverti, nikada nije izvedena; radnja predstave je o režiseru koji nestaje i uredniku koji pokušava da završi posao koji je on ostavi nedovršen. Ostali otkazani projekti uključuju scenario za pornografski film koji je Bergman napustio misleći da neće još dugo da živi, predstava o kanibalu, film o Isusu, film o Veseloj udovici i predstava pod nazivom Od sperme do aveta.[22]

Porodica Uredi


Grob Ingmara Bergmana i njegove žene, Ingrid fon Rosen.
Bergman se ženio pet puta:

25. marta 1943 — 1945, sa Elsom Fišer, koreografkinjom i plesačicom (razvod). Deca:
Lena Bergman, glumica, rođena 1943.
22. jul 1945 — 1950, sa Elenom Lundstrem, koreografkinjom i filmskim režiserom (razvod). Deca:
Eva Bergman, filmski režiser, rođena 1950,
Jan Bergman, filmski režiser (1945—2000), i
blizanci Mats i Ana Bergman, oboje glumci i filmski režiseri, rođeni 1948.
1951 — 1959, sa Gunom Grut, novinarkom (razvod). Deca:
Ingmar Bergman mlađi, avio kapetan, rođen 1951.
1959 — 1969, sa Kabi Laretei, pijanistkinjom (razvod). Deca:
Danijel Bergman, filmski režiser, rođen 1962.
11. novembar 1971 — 20. maj 1995, sa Ingrid fon Rosen. Deca:
Marija fon Rosen, pisac, rođena 1959.
Prva četiri braka okončana su razvodom, dok je poslednji okončan smrću njegove žene od raka želuca 1995. godine. Pored njegovih brakova, Bergman je imao ljubavne veze sa glumicama Hariet Anderson (1952—1955), Bibi Anderson (1955—1959), i Liv Ulman (1965—1970) sa kojom ima ćerku Lin Ulman. Ukupno, Bergman ima devetoro dece, od koje je jedno umrlo pre njega. Bergman je bio oženjen sa svim majkama svoje dece osim sa Liv Ulman. Njegova ćerka sa njegovom poslednjom suprugom, Ingrid fon Rosen, je rođena dvanaest godina pre njihovog braka.

Kolegijalna kritika i uticaj Uredi


Bista Ingmara Bergmana u aleji velikana u Kjelcu, Poljska.
Mnogi režiseri su pohvalili Bergmana, a neki su naveli njegov rad kao uticaj na svoje radove:

Andrej Tarkovski navodi Bergmana i Roberta Bresona kao svoja dva omiljena režisera: „Ja sam samo zainteresivan za stavove dve osobe: jedna osoba je Breson, a druga Bergman.” Bergmanov uticaj je bio takav da je Tarkovskijev poslednji film snimljen u Švedskoj u saradnji sa Svenom Nikvistom, Bergmanovim dugogodišnjim snimateljem i Erlandom Josefsonom, Bergmanovim omiljenim glumcem. Bergman je isto tako imao veliko poštovanje prema Tarkovskom, navodeći: ”Tarkovski je za mene najbolji režiser.”[23]
Pedro Almodovar[24]
Žan-Lik Godar[25]
Robert Altman[26]
Olivije Asajas[27]
Fransis Ford Kopola[28] je izjavio: „Moj omiljeni režiser svih vremena jer je on oličenje strasti, emocija i ima toplinu.”
Giljermo del Toro je rekao: „Bergman kao basnopisac — moj omiljen — je apsolutno očaravajuć.”[29]
Asgar Farhadi[traži se izvor]
Tod Fild[30] je izjavio: „Bio je čovek koji gradi akvadukt naše kinematografije.”
Vudi Alen[31] navodi Bergmana kao „verovatno najboljeg filmskog umetnika od pronalaska filmske kamere.”[32]
Kšištof Kišlovski[33] je izjavio: „Ovaj čovek je jedan od nekoliko filmskih režisera — verovatno jedini na svetu — koji je rekao toliko o ljudskoj prirodi kao Dostojevski i Kami.”
Stenli Kjubrik[34] je izjavio: „Verujem da su Ingmar Bergman, Vitorio De Sika i Federiko Felini jedina tri režisera u svetu koja nisu samo umetnički oportunisti. Pod ovim mislim da oni ne sede i ne čekaju dobru priču da naprave film. Oni imaju tačku gledišta koja je izražena iznova i iznova u njihovim filmovima, i oni sami pišu ili imaju napisane materijale za njih.”
Ang Li je izjavio: „Za mene je Bergman najbolji režiser od svih.”[35]
Fransua Ozon[27]
Pak Čan Uk[27]
Erik Romer je izjavio: „Sedmi pečat je najlepši film svih vremena.”[27]
Maržan Satrapi[27]
Mamoru Oši[36]
Pol Šreder je izjavio: „Ne bih napravio neki od mojih filmova ili napisao scenario kao što je Taksista da nije bilo za Ingmara Bergmana. Ono što je on ostavio je nasleđe veće nego od bilo kog režisera. Izvanredna stvar koja će ostati upamćena po Bergmanu je da je on učinio više nego bilo ko drugi da bioskop postane lični medijum i introspektivna vrednost.”[37]
Martin Skorseze je rekao: ”Ako ste bili živi pedesetih i šezdesetih godina i želeli da napravite film, ne vidim kako ne možete biti po uticajem Bergmana.”[38]
Stiven Spilberg je izjavio: „Njegova ljubav prema filmu skoro mi daje grižu savest.”[39]
Satjađit Raj[40] je izjavio: „Bergman je taj kojim sam i dalje opčinjen. Mislim da je izvanredan.”
Andre Tešine[27]
Liv Ulman[41]
Nagrade Uredi

Oskar Uredi
Bergman je 1971. godine dobio memorijalnu nagradu “Irving Talberg” za životno delo na dodeli Oskara. Tri njegova filmova osvojila su “Oskara” za najbolji strani film. Lista njegovih nominacija i nagrada je sledeća:

Nagrađen: najbolji strani film, Devičanski izvor, 1960
Nagrađen: najbolji strani film, Kroz tamno ogledalo, 1961
Nagrađen: najbolji strani film, Fani i Aleksandar, 1983
Nominovan: Najbolji originalni scenario, Divlje jagode, 1957
Nominovan: Najbolji originalni scenario, Kroz tamno ogledalo, 1961
Nominovan: Najbolji originalni scenario, Krici i šaputanja, 1974
Nominovan: Najbolji film, Krici i šaputanja, 1974
Nominovan: Najbolji režiser, Krici i šaputanja, 1974
Nominovan: Najbolji režiser, Licem u lice, 1974
Nominovan: Najbolji originalni scenario, Jesenja sonata, 1979
Nominovan: Najbolji originalni scenario, Fani i Aleksandar, 1983
Nominovan: Najbolji režiser, Fani i Aleksandar, 1983
BAFTA nagrade Uredi
Nominovan: Najbolji film iz bilo kog izvora, Mađioničar
Nominovan: Najbolji strani film, Fani i Aleksandar, 1983
Berlinksi filmski festival Uredi
Nagrađen: Zlatni medved za najbolji film, Divlje jagode, 1957
Nominovan: Zlatni medved za najbolji film, Kroz tamno ogledalo, 1961
Nagrađen: MKOBA nagrada, Kroz tamno ogledalo, 1961
Nagrada Cezar Uredi
Nominovan: Najbolji strani film, Čarobna frula, 1976
Nominovan: Najbolji strani film, Jesenja sonata, 1979
Nagrađen: Najbolji strani film, Fani i Aleksandar, 1984
Nominovan: Najbolji Evropski film, Sarabanda, 2005
Kanski filmski festival Uredi
Nagrađen: Najbolji poetski humor, Osmesi letnje noći, 1955
Nominovan: Zlatna palma, Osmesi letnje noći, 1955
Nagrađen: Specijalna nagrada žirija, Sedmi pečat, 1957
Nominovan: Zlatna palma, , Sedmi pečat, 1957
Nagrađen: Najbolji režiser, Ivica života, 1958
Nominovan: Zlatna palma, Ivica života, 1958
Nagrađen: Specijalno priznanje, Devičanski izvor, 1960
Nominovan: Zlatna palma, Devičanski izvor, 1960
Nagrađen: Tehnička nagrada žirija, Krici i šaputanja, 1972
Nagrađen: Nagrada za životno delo, 1998
Nagrada Zlatni globus Uredi
Nagrađen: Najbolji strani film, Divlje jagode, 1960
Nagrađen: Najbolji strani film, Devičanski izvor, 1960
Nagrađen: Najbolji strani film, Prizori iz bračnog života, 1975
Nagrađen: Najbolji strani film, Licem u lice, 1976
Nagrađen: Najbolji strani film, Jesenja sonata, 1978
Nagrađen: Najbolji strani film, Fani i Aleksandar, 1984
Nominovan: Najbolji strani film, Sram, 1968
Nominovan: Najbolji strani film, Krici i šaputanja, 1973
Nagrada Zlatna buba Uredi
Nagrađen: Najbolji film, Tišina, 1963
Nagrađen: Najbolji režiser, Tišina, 1963
Nagrađen: Najbolji film, Persona, 1966
Nagrađen: Najbolji film, Krici i šaputanja, 1972
Nagrađen: Najbolji film, Fani i Aleksandar, 1982
Nagrađen: Najbolji režiser, Fani i Aleksandar, 1982
Nagrađen: Najbolji scenario, Najbolje namere, 1992
Ostale nagrade i priznanja Uredi
Strani počasni član Američke akademija umetnosti i nauke, 1961
Nagrada Doroti i Lilijan Giš, 1995
Komandir legije časti, 1985
Izložbe Uredi

Ingmar Bergman: Stvaralac slike,[42] Moskovska kuća fotografije
Ingmar Bergman: Čovek koji je postavljao teška pitanja,[43] Moskovska kuća fotografije
Filmografija Uredi

Saznajte više
Ovaj članak nije preveden na srpski jezik.
Reditelj Uredi
1946 - Det regnar på vår kärlek (Man with an Umbrella)
1946 - Kris (Crisis)
1947 - Skepp till India land (A Ship Bound for India)
1948 - Hamnstad (Port of Call)
1948 - Musik i mörker (Music in Darkness)
1949 - Fängelse (The Devil`s Wanton)
1949 - Törst (Thirst)
1950 - Sånt händer inte här This Can`t Happen Here)
1950 - Till glädje (To Joy)
1951 - Sommarlek (Summer Interlude)
1952 - Kvinnors väntan (Secrets of Women)
1953 - Gycklarnas afton (The Naked Night)
1953 - Sommaren med Monika (Лето с Моником)
1954 - Lektion i kärlek, En (A Lesson in Love)
1955 - Kvinnodröm (Dreams)
1955 - Sommarnattens leende (Осмеси у летњој ноћи)
1957 - Bakomfilm smultronstället
1957 - Herr Sleeman kommer
1957 - Sjunde inseglet, Det (Седми печат)
1957 - Smultronstället (Дивље јагоде)
1958 - Ansiktet (The Magician)
1958 - Nära livet (Brink of Life)
1958 - Rabies
1958 - Venetianskan
1960 - Djävulens öga (The Devil`s Eye)
1960 - Jungfrukällan (The Virgin Spring)
1960 - Oväder
1961 - Såsom i en spegel (Through a Glass Darkly)
1963 - Drömspel, Ett
1963 - Nattvardsgästerna (Зимска светлост)
1963 - Tystnaden (Тишина)
1964 - För att inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor (Now About These Women)
1965 - Don Juan, (TV serija)
1966 - Persona
1967 - Stimulantia
1968 - Skammen (Shame)
1968 - Vargtimmen (Hour of the Wolf)
1969 - Fårödokument 1969
1969 - Passion, En (Страст)
1969 - Riten (The Ritual)
1971 - Beröringen (The Touch)
1972 - Viskningar och rop (Крици и шапутања)
1973 - Scener ur ett äktenskap (Призори из брачног живота)
1974 - Misantropen
1975 - Trollflöjten (Чаробна флаута)
1976 - Ansikte mot ansikte (Face to Face)
1977 - The Serpent`s Egg
1978 - Höstsonaten (Јесења соната)
1979 - Fårö-dokument 1979
1980 - Aus dem Leben der Marionetten (From the Life of the Marionettes)
1982 - Fanny och Alexander (Фани и Александар)
1983 - Hustruskolan
1984 - Efter repetitionen (After the Rehearsal)
1984 - Karins ansikte (Karin`s Face)
1986 - Dokument Fanny och Alexander (The Making of Fanny and Alexander)
1986 - Två saliga, De
1992 - Markisinnan de Sade
1993 - Backanterna
1995 - Sista skriket (The Last Gasp)
1997 - Larmar och gör sig till (In the Presence of a Clown)
2000 - Bildmakarna
2003 - Saraband
Pisac Uredi
1944 - Hets (Torment)
1946 - Det regnar på vår kärlek (Man with an Umbrella)
1946 - Kris (Crisis)
1947 - Kvinna utan ansikte (Woman Without a Face)
1947 - Skepp till India land (A Ship Bound for India)
1948 - Eva
1948 - Hamnstad (Port of Call)
1948 - Musik i mörker (Music in Darkness)
1949 - Fängelse (Prison)
1950 - Medan staden sover (While the City Sleeps)
1950 - Till glädje (To Joy)
1951 - Frånskild (Divorced)
1951 - Sommarlek (Summer Interlude)
1952 - Kvinnors väntan (Secrets of Women)
1953 - Gycklarnas afton (The Naked Night)
1953 - Sommaren med Monika (Summer with Monika)
1954 - Lektion i kärlek, En (A Lesson in Love)
1955 - Kvinnodröm (Dreams)
1955 - Sommarnattens leende (Smiles of a Summer Night)
1956 - Sista paret ut (Last Pair Out)
1957 - Nattens ljus (Night Light)
1957 - Sjunde inseglet, Det (The Seventh Seal)
1957 - Smultronstället (Wild Strawberries)
1958 - Ansiktet (The Magician)
1958 - Nära livet (Brink of Life)
1960 - Djävulens öga (The Devil`s Eye)
1961 - Lustgården (The Pleasure Garden)
1961 - Såsom i en spegel (Through a Glass Darkly)
1963 - Nattvardsgästerna (Winter Light)
1963 - Trämålning
1963 - Tystnaden (The Silence)
1964 - För att inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor (Now About These Women)
1966 - Persona
1967 - Stimulantia
1968 - Skammen (Shame)
1968 - Vargtimmen (Hour of the Wolf)
1969 - Passion, En (The Passion of Anna)
1969 - Riten (The Ritual)
1970 - Reservatet
1970 - The Lie
1971 - Beröringen (The Touch)
1972 - Viskningar och rop (Cries and Whispers)
1973 - Scener ur ett äktenskap (Scenes from a Marriage)
1976 - Ansikte mot ansikte (Face to Face)
1977 - A Little Night Music
1977 - The Serpent`s Egg
1978 - Höstsonaten (Autumn Sonata)
1980 - Aus dem Leben der Marionetten (From the Life of the Marionettes)
1982 - Fanny och Alexander (Fanny and Alexander)
1984 - Efter repetitionen (After the Rehearsal)
1984 - Karins ansikte (Karin`s Face)
1986 - Dokument Fanny och Alexander (The Making of `Fanny and Alexander`)
1990 - A Little Night Music
1991 - `Goda viljan, Den` (mini TV serija)
1992 - Goda viljan, Den (The Best Intentions)
1992 - Markisinnan de Sade
1992 - Söndagsbarn (Sunday`s Children)
1995 - Sista skriket (The Last Gasp)
1996 - Enskilda samtal (Private Confessions)
1997 - Larmar och gör sig till
2000 - Trolösa (Faithless)
2002 - Persona
2003 - Saraband
2005 - Bergmanova sonata
Glumac Uredi
1944 - Hets (Torment - Voice on the radio)
1947 - Skepp till India land (A Ship Bound for India - Man wearing a beret at the funfair)
1949 - Törst (Thirst - Train passenger)
1950 - Till glädje (To Joy - Expecting father at the maternity ward)
1952 - Kvinnors väntan (Secrets of Women - Man in the stairs at the gynecologist`s)
1954 - Lektion i kärlek, En (A Lesson in Love)
1955 - Kvinnodröm (Dreams - Man with poodle)
1969 - Passion, En (The Passion of Anna - Narrator)
1969 - Riten (The Ritual - Priest)
1975 - Trollflöjten (The Magic Flute - Audience)
1997 - Larmar och gör sig till (Mental patient)
Producent Uredi
1957 - Bakomfilm smultronstället
1960 - Jungfrukällan (The Virgin Spring)
1966 - Persona
1971 - Beröringen (The Touch)
1977 - Paradistorg (Paradise Place)
1978 - Rätt ut i luften
1979 - Min älskade (My Beloved)
1980 - Aus dem Leben der Marionetten (From the Life of the Marionettes)
1981 - Sally och friheten (Sally and Freedom)
Reference

Literatura

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Ernst Ingmar Bergman[a] (14 July 1918 – 30 July 2007) was a Swedish film director, screenwriter, and producer. Considered to be among the most accomplished and influential filmmakers of all time,[1][2][3] Bergman`s films include Smiles of a Summer Night (1955), The Seventh Seal (1957), The Silence (1963), Wild Strawberries (1957), Through a Glass Darkly (1961), Persona (1966), Hour of the Wolf (1969), Cries and Whispers (1972), Scenes from a Marriage (1973), and Fanny and Alexander (1982); the last two exist in extended television versions.

Bergman directed over sixty films and documentaries for cinematic release and for television screenings, most of which he also wrote. His theatrical career continued in parallel and included periods as Leading Director of the Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm and of the Residenztheater in Munich.[4] He also directed over 170 plays. He eventually forged a creative partnership with his cinematographers Gunnar Fischer and Sven Nykvist. Among his company of actors were Harriet Andersson, Bibi Andersson, Liv Ullmann, Gunnar Björnstrand, Erland Josephson, Ingrid Thulin, and Max von Sydow. Most of his films were set in Sweden, and many films from Through a Glass Darkly (1961) onward were filmed on the island of Fårö.

Philip French referred to Bergman as `one of the greatest artists of the 20th century ... he found in literature and the performing arts a way of both recreating and questioning the human condition.`[5] Director Martin Scorsese commented: `If you were alive in the 50s and the 60s and of a certain age, a teenager on your way to becoming an adult, and you wanted to make movies, I don`t see how you couldn`t be influenced by Bergman ....It`s impossible to overestimate the effect that those films had on people.`[6] Bergman was ranked 7th in director`s poll on Sight & Sound`s 2002 list of The Greatest Directors of All Time.[7]

Biography Edit

Early life Edit

Young Bergman
Ernst Ingmar Bergman was born on 14 July 1918 in Uppsala, Sweden,[8] the son of Erik Bergman, a Lutheran minister and later chaplain to the King of Sweden, and Karin (née Åkerblom), a nurse who also had Walloon[9] ancestors.[10] The Bergman family was originally from Järvsö in Gävleborg county. Bergman`s paternal grandfather worked as a pharmacist in Stockholm, and his paternal great grandfather Henrik Bergman worked as an assistant vicar and was married to Erika Augusta Agrell, daughter of vicar Erik Agrell and Elsa Margareta Hermanni, a daughter of chief accountant Hieronymus Emanuel Hermanni and Anna Katarina Neostadia. The Hermannis were merchants in Stockholm, Hieronymus` father, Simon Daniel, was wholesaler like his grandfather. Via Elsa Margareta Hermanni, Bergman descended from the noble families Bröms, Stockenström, Ehrenskiöld, clergy families of Swedish, Swedish-Finnish origin and burghers of Swedish and German origin. Via his paternal grandmother Alma Katarina Eneroth, Bergman descended from the German noble families Flach[disambiguation needed] and de Frese introduced at the Swedish Riddarhuset. Alma Katarina Eneroth was a cousin of Bergman`s maternal grandfather traffic manager Johan Åkerblom. Thus Bergman`s parents were second cousins. Bergman`s maternal granddmother, Anna Calwagen, was the daughter of Ernst Gottfrid Calwagen, a lector of German and English, and his wife Charlotta Margareta Carsberg. The progenitor of the Calwagen family, the merchant Paul Calwagen, had emigrated from Holland to Karlshamn, Sweden in the 17th century. Paul`s wife, the Dutch-Swedish Maria van der Hagen, was descendant of the Dutch-Swedish court painter Laurens van der Plas. Via Ernst Gottfried, Bergman was descendant of the noble families Tigerschiöld and Weinholz as well as the Bure[disambiguation needed] family.[11]

He grew up with his older brother Dag and sister Margareta surrounded by religious imagery and discussion. His father was a conservative parish minister with strict ideas of parenting. Ingmar was locked up in dark closets for infractions such as wetting himself. `While father preached away in the pulpit and the congregation prayed, sang, or listened`, Ingmar wrote in his autobiography Laterna Magica,

I devoted my interest to the church`s mysterious world of low arches, thick walls, the smell of eternity, the coloured sunlight quivering above the strangest vegetation of medieval paintings and carved figures on ceilings and walls. There was everything that one`s imagination could desire—angels, saints, dragons, prophets, devils, humans ...
Although raised in a devout Lutheran household, Bergman later stated that he lost his faith when aged eight, and only came to terms with this fact while making Winter Light in 1962.[12] His interest in theatre and film began early: `At the age of nine, he traded a set of tin soldiers for a magic lantern, a possession that altered the course of his life. Within a year, he had created, by playing with this toy, a private world in which he felt completely at home, he recalled. He fashioned his own scenery, marionettes, and lighting effects and gave puppet productions of Strindberg plays in which he spoke all the parts.`[13][14]

Bergman attended Palmgren`s School as a teenager. His school years were unhappy,[15] and he remembered them unfavourably in later years. In a 1944 letter concerning the film Torment (sometimes known as Frenzy), which sparked debate on the condition of Swedish high schools (and which Bergman had written),[16] the school`s principal Henning Håkanson wrote, among other things, that Bergman had been a `problem child`.[17] Bergman wrote in a response that he had strongly disliked the emphasis on homework and testing in his formal schooling.

In 1934, aged 16, he was sent to Germany to spend the summer holidays with family friends. He attended a Nazi rally in Weimar at which he saw Adolf Hitler.[18] He later wrote in Laterna Magica (The Magic Lantern) about the visit to Germany, describing how the German family had put a portrait of Hitler on the wall by his bed, and that `for many years, I was on Hitler`s side, delighted by his success and saddened by his defeats`.[19] Bergman commented that `Hitler was unbelievably charismatic. He electrified the crowd. ... The Nazism I had seen seemed fun and youthful`.[20] Bergman did two five-month stretches in Sweden of mandatory military service.[21]

Bergman enrolled at Stockholm University College (later renamed Stockholm University) in 1937, to study art and literature. He spent most of his time involved in student theatre and became a `genuine movie addict`.[22] At the same time, a romantic involvement led to a physical confrontation with his father which resulted in a break in their relationship which lasted for many years. Although he did not graduate from the university, he wrote a number of plays and an opera, and became an assistant director at a local theatre. In 1942, he was given the opportunity to direct one of his own scripts, Caspar`s Death. The play was seen by members of Svensk Filmindustri, which then offered Bergman a position working on scripts. He married Else Fisher in 1943.

Film career until 1975 Edit

Bergman in 1957
Bergman`s film career began in 1941 with his work rewriting scripts, but his first major accomplishment was in 1944 when he wrote the screenplay for Torment (a.k.a. Frenzy) (Hets), a film directed by Alf Sjöberg. Along with writing the screenplay, he was also appointed assistant director of the film. In his second autobiographical book, Images: My Life in Film, Bergman describes the filming of the exteriors as his actual film directorial debut.[23] The film sparked debate on Swedish formal education. When Henning Håkanson (the principal of the high school Bergman had attended) wrote a letter following the film`s release, Bergman, according to scholar Frank Gado, disparaged in a response what he viewed as Håkanson`s implication that students `who did not fit some arbitrary prescription of worthiness deserved the system`s cruel neglect`.[16] Bergman also stated in the letter that he `hated school as a principle, as a system and as an institution. And as such I have definitely not wanted to criticize my own school, but all schools.`[24][25] The international success of this film led to Bergman`s first opportunity to direct a year later. During the next ten years he wrote and directed more than a dozen films, including Prison (Fängelse) in 1949, as well as Sawdust and Tinsel (Gycklarnas afton) and Summer with Monika (Sommaren med Monika), both released in 1953.


Bergman and Victor Sjöström on the set of Wild Strawberries (1957)
Bergman first achieved worldwide success with Smiles of a Summer Night (Sommarnattens leende, 1955), which won for `Best poetic humour` and was nominated for the Palme d`Or at Cannes the following year. This was followed by The Seventh Seal (Det sjunde inseglet) and Wild Strawberries (Smultronstället), released in Sweden ten months apart in 1957. The Seventh Seal won a special jury prize and was nominated for the Palme d`Or at Cannes, and Wild Strawberries won numerous awards for Bergman and its star, Victor Sjöström. Bergman continued to be productive for the next two decades. From the early 1960s, he spent much of his life on the island of Fårö, where he made several films.

In the early 1960s he directed three films that explored the theme of faith and doubt in God, Through a Glass Darkly (Såsom i en Spegel, 1961), Winter Light (Nattvardsgästerna, 1962), and The Silence (Tystnaden, 1963). Critics created the notion that the common themes in these three films made them a trilogy or cinematic triptych. Bergman initially responded that he did not plan these three films as a trilogy and that he could not see any common motifs in them, but he later seemed to adopt the notion, with some equivocation.[26][27] His parody of the films of Federico Fellini, All These Women (För att inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor) was released in 1964.[28]

Largely a two-hander with Bibi Andersson and Liv Ullmann, Persona (1966) is a film that Bergman himself considered one of his most important works. While the highly experimental film won few awards, it has been considered his masterpiece. Other films of the period include The Virgin Spring (Jungfrukällan, 1960), Hour of the Wolf (Vargtimmen, 1968), Shame (Skammen, 1968) and The Passion of Anna (En Passion, 1969). With his cinematographer Sven Nykvist, Bergman made use of a crimson color scheme for Cries and Whispers (1972), which received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Picture.[29] He also produced extensively for Swedish television at this time. Two works of note were Scenes from a Marriage (Scener ur ett äktenskap, 1973) and The Magic Flute (Trollflöjten, 1975).


Bergman with his long-time cinematographer Sven Nykvist during the production of Through a Glass Darkly (1960)
Tax evasion charges in 1976 Edit
On 30 January 1976, while rehearsing August Strindberg`s The Dance of Death at the Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm, he was arrested by two plainclothes police officers and charged with income tax evasion. The impact of the event on Bergman was devastating. He suffered a nervous breakdown as a result of the humiliation, and was hospitalised in a state of deep depression.

The investigation was focused on an alleged 1970 transaction of 500,000 Swedish kronor (SEK) between Bergman`s Swedish company Cinematograf and its Swiss subsidiary Persona, an entity that was mainly used for the paying of salaries to foreign actors. Bergman dissolved Persona in 1974 after having been notified by the Swedish Central Bank and subsequently reported the income. On 23 March 1976, the special prosecutor Anders Nordenadler dropped the charges against Bergman, saying that the alleged crime had no legal basis, saying it would be like bringing `charges against a person who has stolen his own car, thinking it was someone else`s`.[30] Director General Gösta Ekman, chief of the Swedish Internal Revenue Service, defended the failed investigation, saying that the investigation was dealing with important legal material and that Bergman was treated just like any other suspect. He expressed regret that Bergman had left the country, hoping that Bergman was a `stronger` person now when the investigation had shown that he had not done any wrong.[31]

Although the charges were dropped, Bergman became disconsolate, fearing he would never again return to directing. Despite pleas by the Swedish prime minister Olof Palme, high public figures, and leaders of the film industry, he vowed never to work in Sweden again. He closed down his studio on the island of Fårö, suspended two announced film projects, and went into self-imposed exile in Munich, Germany. Harry Schein, director of the Swedish Film Institute, estimated the immediate damage as ten million SEK (kronor) and hundreds of jobs lost.[32]

Aftermath following arrest Edit
Bergman then briefly considered the possibility of working in America; his next film, The Serpent`s Egg (1977) was a German-U.S. production and his second English-language film (the first being The Touch, 1971). This was followed by a British-Norwegian co-production, Autumn Sonata (Höstsonaten, 1978) starring Ingrid Bergman (no relation), and From the Life of the Marionettes (Aus dem Leben der Marionetten, 1980) which was a British-German co-production.

He temporarily returned to his homeland to direct Fanny and Alexander (Fanny och Alexander, 1982). Bergman stated that the film would be his last, and that afterwards he would focus on directing theatre. After that he wrote several film scripts and directed a number of television specials. As with previous work for television, some of these productions were later theatrically released. The last such work was Saraband (2003), a sequel to Scenes from a Marriage and directed by Bergman when he was 84 years old.

Although he continued to operate from Munich, by mid-1978 Bergman had overcome some of his bitterness toward the Swedish government. In July of that year he visited Sweden, celebrating his sixtieth birthday on the island of Fårö, and partly resumed his work as a director at Royal Dramatic Theatre. To honour his return, the Swedish Film Institute launched a new Ingmar Bergman Prize to be awarded annually for excellence in filmmaking.[33] Still, he remained in Munich until 1984. In one of the last major interviews with Bergman, conducted in 2005 on the island of Fårö, Bergman said that despite being active during the exile, he had effectively lost eight years of his professional life.[34]

Retirement and death Edit
Bergman retired from filmmaking in December 2003. He had hip surgery in October 2006 and was making a difficult recovery. He died in his sleep[35] at age 89; his body was found at his home on the island of Fårö, on 30 July 2007, sixteen days after his 89th birthday.[36] (It was the same day another renowned existentialist film director, Michelangelo Antonioni, died.) The interment was private, at the Fårö Church on 18 August 2007. A place in the Fårö churchyard was prepared for him under heavy secrecy. Although he was buried on the island of Fårö, his name and date of birth were inscribed under his wife`s name on a tomb at Roslagsbro churchyard, Norrtälje Municipality, several years before his death.

Filmography Edit

Main article: Ingmar Bergman filmography
Selected work:

Crisis (1946)
It Rains on Our Love (1946)
A Ship Bound for India (1947)
Port of Call (1948)
Prison (1949)
Thirst (1949)
To Joy (1950)
This Can`t Happen Here (1950)
Summer Interlude (1951)
Secrets of Women (1952)
Summer with Monika (1953)
Sawdust and Tinsel (1953)
A Lesson in Love (1954)
Dreams (1955)
Smiles of a Summer Night (1955)
The Seventh Seal (1957)
Wild Strawberries (1957)
Brink of Life (1958)
The Magician (1958)
The Virgin Spring (1960)
The Devil`s Eye (1960)
Through a Glass Darkly (1961)
Winter Light (1963)
The Silence (1963)
All These Women (1964)
Persona (1966)
Stimulantia (1967)
Hour of the Wolf (1968)
Shame (1968)
The Rite (1969)
The Passion of Anna (1969)
The Touch (1971)
Cries and Whispers (1972)
Scenes from a Marriage (1973)
Face to Face (1976)
The Serpent`s Egg (1977)
Autumn Sonata (1978)
Fanny and Alexander (1982)
Style of working Edit

Repertory company Edit

Bergman and actress Ingrid Thulin during the production of The Silence, 1963
Bergman developed a personal `repertory company` of Swedish actors whom he repeatedly cast in his films, including Max von Sydow, Bibi Andersson, Harriet Andersson, Erland Josephson, Ingrid Thulin, Gunnel Lindblom, and Gunnar Björnstrand, each of whom appeared in at least five Bergman features. Norwegian actress Liv Ullmann, who appeared in nine of Bergman`s films and one televisual film (Saraband), was the last to join this group (in the film Persona), and ultimately became the most closely associated with Bergman, both artistically and personally. They had a daughter together, Linn Ullmann (born 1966).

In Bergman`s working arrangement with Sven Nykvist, his best-known cinematographer, the two men developed sufficient rapport to allow Bergman not to worry about the composition of a shot until the day before it was filmed. On the morning of the shoot, he would briefly speak to Nykvist about the mood and composition he hoped for, and then leave Nykvist to work, lacking interruption or comment until post-production discussion of the next day`s work.

Financing Edit

A great number of Bergman`s interior scenes were filmed at the Filmstaden studios north of Stockholm
By Bergman`s own account, he never had a problem with funding. He cited two reasons for this: one, that he did not live in the United States, which he viewed as obsessed with box-office earnings; and two, that his films tended to be low-budget affairs. (Cries and Whispers, for instance, was finished for about $450,000, while Scenes from a Marriage, a six-episode television feature, cost only $200,000.)[37]

Technique Edit
Bergman usually wrote his films` screenplays, thinking about them for months or years before starting the actual process of writing, which he viewed as somewhat tedious. His earlier films are carefully constructed and are either based on his plays or written in collaboration with other authors. Bergman stated that in his later works, when on occasion his actors would want to do things differently from his own intention, he would let them, noting that the results were often `disastrous` when he did not do so. As his career progressed, Bergman increasingly let his actors improvise their dialogue. In his later films, he wrote just the ideas informing the scene and allowed his actors to determine the exact dialogue. When viewing daily rushes, Bergman stressed the importance of being critical but unemotive, claiming that he asked himself not if the work was great or terrible, but rather if it was sufficient or needed to be reshot.[37]

Subjects Edit
Bergman`s films usually deal with existential questions of mortality, loneliness, and religious faith. In addition to these cerebral topics, however, sexual desire features in the foreground of most of his films, whether the central event is medieval plague (The Seventh Seal), upper-class family activity in early twentieth century Uppsala (Fanny and Alexander), or contemporary alienation (The Silence). His female characters are usually more in touch with their sexuality than their male equivalents, and unafraid to proclaim it, sometimes with breathtaking overtness (as in Cries and Whispers) as would define the work of `the conjurer,` as Bergman called himself in a 1960 TIME cover story.[38] In an interview with Playboy in 1964, he said: `The manifestation of sex is very important, and particularly to me, for above all, I don`t want to make merely intellectual films. I want audiences to feel, to sense my films. This to me is much more important than their understanding them.` Film, Bergman said, was his demanding mistress.[39] While he was a social democrat as an adult, Bergman stated that `as an artist I`m not politically involved ... I don`t make propaganda for either one attitude or the other.`[40]

Bergman`s views on his career Edit
When asked in the series of interviews later titled `Ingmar Bergman – 3 dokumentärer om film, teater, Fårö och livet` conducted by Marie Nyreröd for Swedish TV and released in 2004, Bergman said that of his works, he held Winter Light,[41] Persona, and Cries and Whispers[42] in the highest regard. There he also states that he managed to push the envelope of film making in the films Persona and Cries and Whispers. Bergman stated on numerous occasions (for example in the interview book Bergman on Bergman) that The Silence meant the end of the era in which religious questions were a major concern of his films. Bergman said that he would get depressed by his own films: `jittery and ready to cry... and miserable.`[43] In the same interview he also stated: `If there is one thing I miss about working with films, it is working with Sven` (Nykvist), the third cinematographer with whom he had collaborated.

Theatrical work Edit
Main article: List of stage productions directed by Ingmar Bergman
Although Bergman was universally famous for his contribution to cinema, he was also an active and productive stage director all his life. During his studies at what was then Stockholm University College, he became active in its student theatre, where he made a name for himself early on. His first work after graduation was as a trainee-director at a Stockholm theatre. At twenty-six years, he became the youngest theatrical manager in Europe at the Helsingborg City Theatre. He stayed at Helsingborg for three years and then became the director at Gothenburg city theatre from 1946 to 1949.

He became director of the Malmö City Theatre in 1953, and remained for seven years. Many of his star actors were people with whom he began working on stage. He was the director of the Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm from 1960 to 1966, and manager from 1963 to 1966, where he began a long-time collaboration with choreographer Donya Feuer.

After Bergman left Sweden because of the tax evasion incident, he became director of the Residenz Theatre of Munich, Germany (1977–1984). He remained active in theatre throughout the 1990s and made his final production on stage with Henrik Ibsen`s The Wild Duck at the Royal Dramatic Theatre in 2002.

Personal life Edit

Marriages and children Edit

The grave of Bergman and his last wife Ingrid
Bergman was married five times:

25 March 1943 – 1945, to Else Fisher (1 March 1918 – 3 March 2006), choreographer and dancer (divorced). Offspring:
Lena Bergman, actress, born 1943.
22 July 1945 – 1950, to Ellen Lundström (23 April 1919 – 6 March 2007), choreographer and film director (divorced). Children:
Eva Bergman, film director, born 1945
Jan Bergman, film director (1946–2000)
the twins Mats and Anna Bergman, both actors and film directors, born in 1948.
1951 – 1959, to Gun Grut (1916–1971), journalist (divorced). Offspring:
Ingmar Bergman Jr., retired airline captain, born 1951.
1959 – 1969, to Käbi Laretei (14 July 1922 – 31 October 2014), concert pianist (divorced). Offspring:
Daniel Bergman, film director, born 1962.
11 November 1971 – 20 May 1995, to Ingrid von Rosen (maiden name Karlebo). Offspring:
Maria von Rosen, author, born 1959.
The first four marriages ended in divorce, while the last ended when his wife Ingrid died of stomach cancer in 1995, aged 65. Aside from his marriages, Bergman had romantic relationships with actresses Harriet Andersson (1952–1955), Bibi Andersson (1955–1959), and Liv Ullmann (1965–1970). He was the father of writer Linn Ullmann with Ullmann. In all, Bergman had nine children, one of whom predeceased him. Bergman eventually married all the mothers of his children, with the exception of Liv Ullmann. His daughter with his last wife, Ingrid von Rosen, was born twelve years before their marriage. He had dozens of mistresses throughout his life and would justify the affairs to his various wives by telling them: “I have so many lives.”[44]

Although Bergman once described himself as one who had lost his faith in an afterlife, Max von Sydow stated in an interview that he had had many discussions with him about religion, and indicated that Bergman`s belief in the afterlife was restored.[45]

Awards and nominations Edit

Main article: List of accolades and awards received by Ingmar Bergman
In 1958, he won the Best Director award for Brink of Life at the Cannes Film Festival,[46] and won the Golden Bear for Wild Strawberries at the Berlin International Film Festival.[47] In 1960 Bergman was featured in the cover of TIME, the first foreign-language filmmaker to do so since Leni Riefenstahl in 1936.[48][49] In 1971, Bergman received the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award at the Academy Awards ceremony. Three of his films (Through a Glass Darkly, The Virgin Spring, and Fanny and Alexander) won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. In 1997, he was awarded the Palme des Palmes (Palm of the Palms) at the 50th anniversary of the Cannes Film Festival. He won many other awards and has been nominated for numerous other awards.

Academy Awards

Year Category Nominated work Result
1959 Best Original Screenplay Wild Strawberries Nominated
1960 Best Foreign Language Film The Virgin Spring Won
1961 Best Foreign Language Film Through a Glass Darkly Won
1962 Best Original Screenplay Nominated
1973 Best Picture Cries and Whispers Nominated
Best Director Nominated
Best Original Screenplay Nominated
1976 Best Director Face to Face Nominated
1978 Best Original Screenplay Autumn Sonata Nominated
1983 Best Foreign Language Film Fanny and Alexander Won
Best Director Nominated
Best Original Screenplay Nominated
Legacy Edit

See also: List of accolades and awards received by Ingmar Bergman and The Dove (1968 film)

A bust of Bergman in Celebrity Alley in Kielce, Poland
Bergman`s work was a point of reference and inspiration for director Woody Allen. He described Bergman as “probably the greatest film artist, all things considered, since the invention of the motion picture camera”.[50] Bergman`s films are mentioned and praised in Annie Hall and others of Allen`s films. Allen also admired Bergman`s longtime director of photography Sven Nykvist and invited him to be his DP on Crimes and Misdemeanors.[51] In 2002, Bergman was listed at number nine on the British Film Institute`s Sight & Sound list of the top ten film directors of modern times.[52] In 2017 New York magazine ranked Bergman at number 55 on their list of The 100 Best Screenwriters of All Time.[53]

After Bergman died, a large archive of notes was donated to the Swedish Film Institute. Among the notes are several unpublished and unfinished scripts both for stage and films, and many more ideas for works in different stages of development. A never-performed play has the title Kärlek utan älskare (`Love without lovers`), and has the note `Complete disaster!` written on the envelope; the play is about a director who disappears and an editor who tries to complete a work he has left unfinished. Other canceled projects include the script for a pornographic film which Bergman abandoned since he did not think it was alive enough, a play about a cannibal, some loose scenes set inside a womb, a film about the life of Jesus, a film about The Merry Widow, and a play with the title Från sperm till spöke (`From sperm to spook`).[54] The Swedish director Marcus Lindeen went through the material, and inspired by Kärlek utan älskare he took samples from many of the works and turned them into a play, titled Arkivet för orealiserbara drömmar och visioner (`The archive for unrealisable dreams and visions`). Lindeen`s play premiered on 28 May 2012 at the Stockholm City Theatre.[54]

Terrence Rafferty of The New York Times wrote that throughout the 1960s, when Bergman `was considered pretty much the last word in cinematic profundity, his every tic was scrupulously pored over, analyzed, elaborated in ingenious arguments about identity, the nature of film, the fate of the artist in the modern world and so on.`[55]

Danish Director Thomas Vinterberg has cited Bergman as one of his major influences, `Bergman is always in my head. He is part of my upbringing and I was fortunate to meet him and get advice from him.`[56] In 1996, Entertainment Weekly ranked Bergman at No. 8 in its `50 Greatest Directors` list.[57][58] Bergman was ranked at No. 36 on Empire magazine`s `Top 40 Greatest Directors of All-Time` list in 2005.[57] In 2007, Total Film magazine ranked Bergman at No. 7 on its `100 Greatest Film Directors Ever` list.[59]

Writer and director Richard Ayoade counts Bergman as one of his inspirations. In 2017, the British Film Institute (BFI) hosted an Ingmar Bergman season and Ayoade said in a Guardian interview that he saw everything in it, `which was one of the best two months ever.`[60] The BFI`s programme included a discussion with Ayoade on Bergman`s 1966 film, Persona, before a screening.[61]

67150633 INGMAR BERGMAN four screenplays (1960)

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